Mental health problems form a larger percentage of disability in developed countries more than other group of illnesses. Mental illness is exhibited by sustained and alterations in normal thinking, mood or behavior that is dominated with distress and impaired functioning CDC., 2012.
Care for mentally ill adults in communities is one of the biggest challenges in mental healthcare. Subsequently, the challenges are further compounded by the nature of intervention measures that are customized to manage, treat, and rehabilitate the condition of the mentally ill adults. It has been established that community care intervention programs have the potential of offering a wide array of services to mentally ill patients around the clock and this has led to the reduction in the number of patients being hospitalized. This paper discusses mental health problems in adult population and further proposes intervention measures for the group in a community setting.
Description of the Population
The chosen population for this study is mentally ill adults since the illnesses is more prevalent and impact the adult population the percentage of mentally ill adults has been on the rise and this is attributed to cases such as drinking, battering, attempted suicides, police referrals Creek & Lougher, 2011.
Unemployment and layoffs has also contributed to the growing number of mentally ill adults. Most mentally ill adults are likely to suffer from schizophrenia. Schizophrenia is one of the most common mental illness disorders that are likely to develop in late adolescence or in early adulthood Cattan & Tilford, 2009.
Older mentally ill patients are also more residentially stable when compared to younger mentally ill patients or children. Although mental illness is common among adults, some population sub-groups have enhanced chances of developing such problems. Research studies have confirmed that women are more likely to develop common mental problems such as anxiety, depression, phobias, obsessive-compulsive and panic disorders while on the other hand, African-Caribbean people are have high rates of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders Taylor, Taske, Swann, & Waller, 2007()
Effects of crisis, disasters, and other trauma causing events on persons of all ages
Adult populations working in some occupations are vulnerable stress related mental health problems. In addition vulnerable groups such as victims of abuse or domestic violence, drug and alcohol misusers, prisoners, homeless people, refugees and people with disabilities also are at greater risks of developing mental health problems.
The relationship between social status and common mental disorders is evident and the effects of crisis, disaster and any other trauma causing activity or event that might influence the adult lives further worsen this. Persons from less privileged groups such as those with poor education, employment, and material deprivation are at high risk of developing or having poor mental health. Consequently, people residing in remote, rural, and deprived areas are also prone to developing mental health problems Taylor, et al., 2007.
It is evident that unemployment and employment can accentuate the development of mental illness in adults of working age. Unemployment is usually characterized with low income and financial difficulties, which further influence the self-esteem and social interactions of adults. On the other hand, employment can result in increased form of stress, the working environment usually determines this, and high job demands.
Summary of "Normal" Development Literature / Theory
Mental illness is not a one-day event but a continuation of ongoing process or development. Mental illnesses that affect the adults often begin before adulthood and later become more evident in adult life. Mental illness begins early in the life of a person and sometimes it persists over a long duration of time CDC., 2012.
In most cases, such mental health problems affect people when they are at their most productive life that is adulthood. It has been found that more than half of mental illness cases that are diagnosable arise by mid-twenties. The major risk factors for mental health problems in adulthood include unemployment, violence, inadequate housing, lower income, stressful events, fuel poverty, increased risk-taking behavior, poor lifestyle choices, debt and smoking Taylor, et al., 2007.
The above factors create stressful environments for adults and hence the prevalence of mental health problems in adult population.
Description of Intervention
The basis for intervention measures in the community settings is for the provision of various medical, psychosocial, and rehabilitative services for the mentally ill adults on a day-to-day basis without interruption. Intervention strategies for mental ill adults are offered in a range of programs so as to produce effective and long-term results. Counseling remains the best primary care option for adults or people with psychological and psychological problems Cattan & Tilford, 2009.
Various research studies have corroborated and affirmed that intervention measures for people with psychological and psychosocial problems is counseling. Counseling that is delivered in primary setting can offer reprieve and satisfaction for mentally ill adults. Counseling is more effective for young adults with mental health problems as it enhances mental and general health of young people Winzer & Brucefors, 2007.
Frequency of counseling for mentally ill patients depends on the severity of the mental health problem. For adults with chronic mental illness, counseling should be done on a long-term basis for optimal results while those with mild mental illness should be subjected to a short-term counseling durations. For adults with chronic mental illness, counseling can be augmented by other treatment intervention measures such as medication management, skills training and benefit management in the community.
Improvement of housing quality for the mentally ill patients is one of the intervention measures that should be incorporated in the plan. Research findings have found out that higher quality housings and neighborhoods ensures better mental health outcomes for mental ill patients especially those patients with chronic mental illness Harkness, Newman, & Salkever, 2004.
As an intervention measure, the housing facilities for the patients should comprise various set of amenity features and the surrounding neighborhood should be devoid of any outward signs of physical deterioration. Improvement of the nature and quality of housing and neighborhood as an intervention measure for mentally ill adults has been consistent with key mental health findings and other theoretical expectations. The above intervention practice is based on the motivation-hygiene theory which proposes that psychiatric patients often struggle to satisfy and meet pain avoidance needs which fluctuates from pain to relief Harkness, et al., 2004.
According to the motivation-hygiene theory, the failure by the mentally ill patients to satisfy the above pain-avoidance needs leads to worse mental health, poor functioning, and other psychiatric symptoms. Improvement of housing and housing support for adults who are recovering from mental illness can play a big role in lowering the readmission rates in community mental health care settings.
Adult mental health care can also revolve around adult therapy, individual therapy, family therapy and couple therapy depending on the nature of the underlying factor that has led to the mental health problem. Individual therapy can be targeted to adults who are coping with mental problems such as depression, anxiety or loss and it plays a crucial role in developing and nurturing life enhancement skill of individuals. On the other hand, family therapy can be used in cases that are associated with family and relationships such as parent and child relationships or single or other kind of parenting adjustments. For couples who are experiencing mental health problems, couple therapy should be initiated so as to help bridge the sources of marital dissatisfaction and conflicts between men and women.
Theories of individual and family development and transitions across the lifespan
Various theories and models have been put forward to help in the understanding and treatment of mental health across the lifespan. For instance, the cognitive behavioral theory or framework is often used in the adult mental health to help in the understanding of the underlying causes of such problems in adults Creek & Lougher, 2011.…