Mustalahti, K., et.al. (2002). Gluten-Free Diet and Quality of Life in Patients
With Screen-Detected Celiac Disease. Effective Clinical Practice. 5 (3):
Key areas of research
SPECIFIC DATA ANALYSIS
Overview of celiac disease with a focus on patient consequences and lack of treatment options.
Limited, in this case. Brief overview, but no substantial literature review presented.
Used Gastrointestinal Symptoms Rating Scale (GSRS) and Psychological General Well-Being Questionnaire (PGWB) to establish quality of life index.
Analysis of data based on scores from methodological studies. Gluten free diets were associated with improved quality of life.
Over the short-term, a modern gluten free diet with more acceptable offerings and choices will provide an adequate quality of life for most patients.
The authors examined the effects of a gluten-free diet on patients that had "clinically silent -- that is, among people who ingest gluten and feel healthy (or have only minor, nonspecific symptoms) despite having typical gluten-triggered lesions of the small-bowel mucosa" (p. 109). The specific focus of the study was how a gluten free diet would influence the quality of life of patients with silent celiac. Because "psychological general well-being and abdominal discomfort are highly subjective and personal matters that depend, at least in part, on personality and environment" a set of standardized questionnaires were used to compare the subjects. Analysis of the questionnaires showed that "most patients… reported improved psychological well-being and gastrointestinal symptoms…. Implying that asymptomatic patients…. Will benefit from a gluten free diet" (p. 111).
A.4 -- Since there was no actual control group, no individuals who could have been helped with a gluten free diet were denied. Instead, "although the quality of life of patients with screen or symptom-detected celiac disease improved during the first year of a gluten-free diet" the authors are unable to gage long-term effects (p. 112). The authors do acknowledge that their findings may not necessarily be applicable to all countries and all cultures, and therefore ethically need to broaden the scope of their study geographically in order to make their assumptions valid for a larger population. Additionally, it was unclear as to the robustness of the type of gluten free diet included in the study, and likely was based on the individual's preferences and demographics.
A-5 -- Forty patients with screen-detected celiac disease and 21 consecutive patients with symptom detected celiac disease were given two sets of standardized questionnaires that would focus on their quality of psychological life and their quality of gastrointestinal symptoms. Both questionnaires were self-administered due to reasons of privacy and the fact that both issues are extremely personal. The authors "performed repeated measures analysis of covariance to study the significance of possible confounding factors (i.e. age, sex, economic situation and BMI)" to validate responses (p.108). For the purposes of this type of study, with the limitations in time, funding and staff, the standardized questionnaires were valid. Each participant was an adult; each assured of their privacy, and, in this case, it is likely the data is as valid as possible for the age groups and celiac situation.
B.1 -- The modern nurse's role has expanded enough to be one of the predominant figures in the way individuals manage their prevention of disease risk and their control of issues once disease has occurred. In the case of the gastrointestinal system, studies have shown that when a nurse advises a patient and family on proper diet for a specific condition, that advice is typically taken more seriously. In the case of risk for colon cancer or other gastrointestinal issues, for instance, the use of a low-gluten diet, use of probiotics and prebiotics, as well as fructoligosaccarides in the patient's diet has both symbiotic and therapeutic qualities and can prevent colon issues. In addition, adding pro and pre-biotics to the diet often increases the absorption of more nutrients from food, allowing the individual to feel less hungry, to digest better, and to have less potential gastric upsets (heart-burn, belching, etc.). Prebiotics are non-digestible carbohydrates that act as food for probiotics. Probiotics are found in such foods as yogurt, while prebiotics are found in bananas, onions, garlic, honey, and whole grains. It is relatively easy to add both to the diet, and the positive and proactive effects are well worth the nursing efforts involved (Zeratsky, 2010; Losada, 2001).
Losada, M. (2001). Towards a healthier diet for the colon: The influence of fructo-oligosaccharides and lactobacilli on intestinal health. Nutrition Research. 22 (1): 71-84, Retrieved from: http://www.nrjournal.com/article/S0271-5317(01)00395-5/abstract
Zeratsky, K. (2010). Is it important to include probiotics and prebiotics in a healthy diet? Mayo Clinic. Retrieved from: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health / probiotics/AN00389
Bebb, et. al.
126 diagnosed with coeliac disease
Primary patient opinions and data
Patient oriented opinions
Respondents show distinct variation
Dietician probably necessary to maximize efficacy of therapy
Survey and Linkert scale on emotional outlook
Patient oriented opinions
Children with celiac disease who attended a week-long gluten free camp showed improvement in numerous psychological factors
Long-term effects, longitudinal studies, population and demographic scales?
Casellas, et. al.
World Journal of Gastro enterology
Multicenter and cross- sectional with questionnaire
GIQLI scores and analysis of cross tabulation
Preference scales based on quantitative measures
In untreated celiac, diet is most important variable on patient health.
Gluten free diet control improves quality of life
Digestive Diseases and Sciences
114 celiac patients
Cross tabulation with demographic issues
Psych. Measures quantified
Importance of psychological effects on celiac patients
Mixed study, qualitative and quantitative
The Nurse Practitioner
Review of literature
Diagnostics from previous studies
It is critical for the modern nurse to take a leadership role in helping patients live a gluten-free life.
Needs expansion into specific ideas on how to be gluten free.
Leffler, et. al.
Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Original research, questionnaire
Multivariate analysis based on cross tabulation
Questionnaire data analyzed
There are specific factors related to gluten free dietary adherence
Education is primary tool that focuses on proper dietary issues surrounding celiac
Annual Review of Pharmacological Toxicology
Previous Data reviewed and Analyzed
Use of COX-2 inhibitors to aid patients in preventing colon cancer
Dietary issues with GF diet may not allow the use of NASIDs as much as a regular diet.
MASC score and self-reporting questionnaires
200 children; 100 with celiac, 100 without
Scales and Child Behavior Checklist completed by parents
Several psychological scales measured and cross tabulated
There are increased rates of emotional and behavioral problems in children and adolescents with celiac disease
Self- reported questionnaires should be validated with other, empirical research.
Effective Clinical Practice
Prospective study, medical biopsy and special questionnaire
GSRS scale and PGWB psychological scales
Biopsy and questionnaire scales analyzed and compared
Gluten free diets improve quality of life index
What are implications of GFD in the long-run?
Roma, et. al.
Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics
Primary compliance with special questionnaire
Cross tabulation of questionnaire
Children have low dietary compliance
Some of the data is based on what parents think children are eating
Bebb, J., et.al. (2006). Long-term follow-up of coeliac disease -- what do coeliac patient's want? Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 23 (1): 827-31.
This article used a questionnaire sent to 183 patients who had a duodenal biopsy between 1994 and 2004 that was consistent with coeliac disease. A total of 126 patients responded with 88% trying to follow a strict gluten free diet. The results of the research showed that most patients (92%) found outpatient services very helpful, and needed the support and advice of a professional to help with their compliance to a specific diet. The research suggests a more robust non-clinical care protocol would be helpful, although the data set is rather limited and likely needs more longitudinal responses.
Children between the ages of 7 and 17, all with celiac disease, were sent to a gluten-free camp for a week. Of the 104 campers, 77 completed a survey dealing with physical and emotional symptoms at the beginning and end of the week. Most found that there were positive effects from a strict gluten free diet, not only on physical symptoms but particularly in the reduction of stress and anxiety surrounding food occasions. The researchers used statistical tools to validate the diet, and the findings that those who had been on a GF diet for less than 4 years would benefit more from the camp seem logical.
Casellas, F., et.al. (2008). Factors that impact health-related quality of life in adults with celiac disease. World Journal of Gastroenterology. 14 (1): 46-52.
In this very robust study, 343 patients, 163 with a GF diet and 177 newly diagnosed with celiac and a normal diet, were surveyed…