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1). Hence when mankind creates something that is meaningful and orderly it will probably work effectively.
Krieger counters that it may not be possible to deliberately create something that is "orderly, purposeful or meaningful" and that works well (Krieger, 2005:76). Historically design has focused on structures that are sacred including cities (Krieger, 2005). It is important if planning to redesign nature that mankind takes into consideration the sacredness of nature. It is not geographers that would give meaning to the Earth but rather nature itself; it is too important for mankind to forget the original design and hence become confused about that which is real vs. that which is fake (Krieger, 2005).
Balance may be defined once mankind realizes it's understanding of the natural landscape has changed. Regardless of how much mankind may revere trees for example, mankind rarely treats nature or trees as sacred or relevant; rather nature has become in many ways "disenchanted" (Krieger, 2005: 113). For ecological restoration to occur in a benevolent and beneficial manner it is important first that mankind once again adopt an enchanted view of nature. This will help restore balance and ensure that restorations occur in an environmentally ethical manner.
Before nature is restored nature should be defined as something that is sacred. Only after nature is held sacred can the natural order of things be restored. Once restoration has occurred, the natural order and balance that has been established during the creation or design process must be maintained. This means that mankind must continue to value and hold sacred that which nature has to offer, even if nature is 'artificial' in some sense as it has been restored. Maintaining the natural balance of things after restoration however will ensure that mankind is moving toward creating natural harmony, rather than moving in a pattern that is destructive.
As Elliot points out restoration is useless if mankind adopts restoration as a means to further his own interests rather than as a means to restore the natural landscape and sacred nature of the land. It doesn't do any good at all for mankind to restore the natural balance if man doesn't learn how to stop abusing nature and causing the very destruction that leads to a need for restoration in the first place.
Many environmental ethicists would argue that natural restoration is a futile attempt to restore that which is sacred. On further examination however one can identify appropriate uses for ecological restoration. Elliot asserts that environmental restoration is a useless attempt to fake nature if not approached in a benevolent manner. The author notes that ecological restoration serves little purpose if it occurs purely to serve the materialistic needs of society.
If for example, mankind seeks to restore nature simply to profit financially from the restoration, then ecological restoration serves no purpose and is nothing more the 'faking' that which is real. If on the other hand mankind attempts to restore the natural balance for benevolent purposes, as to restore the nature landscape purely for the purposes of restoring the natural ecology and compensating for the injustices brought on nature my man's actions, then restoration may serve a valuable purpose. That purpose would include restoring that which is sacred to the land rather than simply creating a fake landscape for personal use or profit.
These sentiments are echoed by others who support the notion that nature is sacred and offers mankind something uniquely valuable that needs to be appreciated in and of itself. The natural balance should be approached from the perspective that mankind should seek to restore the environment only to the extent that the restoration will restore nature for purely benevolent purposes. Supplying mankind with additional profit is not a purely benevolent purpose. However righting the wrongs that have occurred in nature and restoring the natural landscape for its natural value, much like one would restore a painting for its natural value, is a worthy cause. In this case one is not attempting to profit from the restoration or create a fake, but rather restore the original version to its original grace and glory so it can be better appreciated.
Light, Andrew. The Beauty Around Us: Environmental Aesthetics in the Scenic
Landscape and Beyond. Albany: Suny Press: 2003.
Elliot Robert. "Faking Nature." Environmental Ethics. 4th edition.
Ed. Louis P. Pojman. Belmont, California: Thomson Wadsworth, 2005.
Krieger, Murray H. "What's…[continue]
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