The author also refers to the fact that the United Sates uses wood at a very high rate compared to other regions of the world, which also impacts on the available forests and emphasizes the need for more intensive forest management. Furthermore, the article also discusses how legislation in the United States has reduced the extent of deforestation in the country. Despite these attempts at reducing the economic impact on the forests, the article provides some extensive and alarming statistics about the numbers and types of trees that have been eradicated in America alone.
This study goes on to discuss various solutions to the present impasse between the environmental groups who oppose logging and unmanaged economic activity and the wood and logging industry. This, state the authors, would involve a compromise between these two groups. The author suggests that on the one hand the environmentalists have to realize that they cannot oppose all logging activity and the lumber industry has to become more conscious of the issue of sustainability and forest management.
The last article in this literary review is an important publication by the World Wildlife Fund entitled, Integrating Forest Protection, and Management and Restoration at a Landscape Scale (2004). This paper attempts to show that "... The forest targets - on protection, management and restoration - can be combined into a coherent programme and delivered at a landscape scale in a priority ecoregion" (Aldrich et al. 2004). In essence what the paper attempts to show is that the elements of forest management and forest landscape restoration can be integrated into a coherent management plan. A central point of this study is that the restoration and management of forests can only be achieved when the other concomitant factors are also taken into account; such as poverty alleviation, human well-being and various legitimate forms of social and economic development. (Aldrich et al. 2004). In other words, as the authors state,
Conservation does not take place divorced from issues relating to human well-being, and those involved in conservation are usually also concerned about social justice and sustainable development. The approach therefore also considers where these different but overlapping interests can best be integrated into a multifunctional landscape. (Aldrich et al. 2004).
This point-of-view relates to the central thesis of this paper, in that it stresses that the restoration and management of forests must also take into account related issues and this often necessitates compromise and negotiation. The paper goes on to discuss the various theoretical and practical steps that are needed to integrate these three main aspects into a coherent and workable management strategy. This is intended to facilitate a balanced combination of protection, management and restoration which will provide not only ecological but also social benefits as well.
This integrative framework is based on a number of central assumptions.
These are the following. Synergy: "An integrated approach to protection, management and restoration will give greater net benefits than those achieved by pursuing these aims separately" (Aldrich et al. 2004). This is an important aspect as it means that a more comprehensive approach to forest management would integrate and include the interests of all stakeholders and parties concerned and therefore make any management program more acceptable and functional in the long-term. This leads to the second assumption, which is that that this integrative strategy will of necessity result in a number of compromises or 'trade-offs'. This means that the various needs of those affected from both an ecological, economic and social point-of-view will have to be taken into account.
This in turn will result in the third central aspect, which is better cost effectiveness. "Integrating programmes of protection, management and restoration will allow more efficient use of available financial and staff resources" (Aldrich et al. 2004). This means that due to the complexity and intricate nature of forest management, future projects and endeavors should take place in conjunction with other institutions and players. Furthermore, "... conservation does not take place divorced from issues relating to human well-being and those involved in conservation are usually also concerned about social justice and sustainable development..."(Aldrich et al. 2004).
In summary, the literature on this topic points to a number of central issues. The first is that there has been a dramatic decline in the world's forests in recent years and that this is closely associated with a lack of regulated management and restoration projects. As a result, the research that has been undertaken has established that the restoration and management of forests has extremely far-reaching and serious consequences for the environment as well as for issues such as climate change and global warming.
It has been found that a poor forest environment has negative implications for the surrounding ecosystems and that it also impacts on economic and social factors. Therefore a more holistic and integrated form of forest management is suggested by many contemporary theorists; which also takes into account public understanding and perception of the need for forest management. Studies also indicate that such management programs cannot take place in isolation and that they need to be researched and conducted in conjunction with all the relevant stakeholders and concerned parties. This view is extremely important for the future of forestry management as it means that both the environmentalist and the economists and lumber industry will need to make compromises in order for the successful restoration and management of this vital resource.
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