Non-Western World by Western Powers In the essay

Download this essay in word format (.doc)

Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formatting

Excerpt from essay:

Non-Western World by Western Powers:

In the period between 1870 and 1914, Western powers took over the main portions of the non-Western world when there was considerable discussion and debate regarding the cause of this takeover. Despite the controversies surrounding this decision, the Western powers were motivated by various factors behind the takeover. The takeover of the non-Western world by Western powers is commonly known as imperialism or European imperialism. The term imperialism is used to refer to the process of expanding one state's control over another through various forms. Some of the major forms that characterize the takeover include direct rule and indirect rule with the former involving annexing territories outright and subjugating people who lived in these territories. In contrast, indirect rule is a process where Western powers reached agreements with local leaders and governed through these agreements. Regardless of the form of imperialism, the takeover by Western powers attracted huge debate and controversies.

European Imperialism:

European imperialism or takeover by Western powers has taken varying forms that are historically inter-related. Direct rule by these powers was a wholesale appropriation of territory through demographic and political displacement of previous occupants of a territory. On the contrary, indirect rule involved controlling societies or territories that remained in occupation of the entire land though reshaped. Therefore, the takeover of non-Western world by the Western powers or European nations involved territorial appropriation or demographic displacement.

The differences in the methods of takeover contributed to the classification of the takeover into two major categories. The first category is known as formal imperialism, which was characterized by colonial rule over largely indigenous populations without geographic takeover ("Economic Imperialism," p.1). While this type of imperialism can be traced back to 1765 when British East India Company established control over Bengal's land revenue, it was used between 1870 and 1914 by Western powers in their takeover of the non-Western world. The second category of imperialism is informal imperialism that involves the use of force to secure territories or open foreign markets. The origin of this form of takeover can be traced back to the 15th Century where it was applied to the establishment by the Portuguese. It was later practiced in the 17th Century by the French, English, and Dutch with armed seaborne trading networks in the African and Asian coasts.

Even though these forms of imperialism have long-standing histories, they expanded dramatically in the 19th Century. One of the most significant examples of formal imperialism was the scramble for Africa between 1875 and 1902 through which Europeans secured approximately 90% of the African continent (Coffin & Stacey, p.524). Moreover, formal imperialism was widely used between 1870 and 1900 where small group of Western powers like Germany and the United States colonized 25% of the land surface across the globe.

The small group of Western powers i.e. France, Russia, Britain, the Netherlands, Germany, and the United States extended informal empire into Turkey, China, Central and South America, and South and East Asia. The expansion of informal empire or European power contributed to the emergence of the concept of neo-imperialism thought the concept was not entirely new. Imperialism or takeover of non-Western world by Western powers can be regarded as a new means of European empire building following the disintegration of European initial modern empires in North and South America by the end of the 18th Century.

The 19th Century imperialism emerged against the conditions of liberal revolution, industrialization, and development of nation-states. Notably, most of these Western powers were in principle democratic countries where the government exercised its authority based on consent and the concept of civic equality. While the Western powers had ambitious goals that fueled the takeover, they encountered resistance from the local indigenous populations. The resistance helped to shape the history of colonialism just like the ambitious plans of the Western powers.

Reasons for the Takeover:

The conquest of non-Western world was made difficult by the fact that Western powers were primarily democratic nations whose governance relied on the idea of civic equality and consent. The Western powers stated various reasons for their takeover though their decisions generated sharp questions, especially about the status of colonized individuals. Some of the reasons attributed to the takeover include a missionary passion to covert people to Christianity, social reforms, and investment in infrastructure. However, the main reason for the takeover include & #8230;

Economic Purposes:

One of the major reasons that fueled the takeover of non-Western world by Western powers was economic gains. Actually, the nature of colonial imperialism in the 19th Century changed significantly because the nature and motives of this process was largely influenced by the growing industrialization. Before this period, the emergence of imperialism in the early 1500s was driven by three major factors i.e. God, gold, and glory, which made Western powers to strongly extend their power and influence across the globe ("European Imperial Expansion," par, 1). The economic-driven imperialism was also geared towards expanding European civilization to an extent where European civilization and culture would have 85% dominance in the entire world.

The influence of economic gains towards European imperialism is evident in the fact that the Industrial Revolution during this period necessitated the need for new resources and markets. As a result, Western powers sought to takeover the non-Western world because of the growing economic competition that was brought by the spread Industrial Revolution. These countries were characterized with an economically unsettled period in the 1860s that contributed to depression in 1873. In addition, industrial countries were hurt because of their dependence on raw materials and negative impacts on balance of trade. The growth of economic competition from industrialized and industrializing countries like Germany resulted in imperialism.

Economic purposes are considered as the main reason for European imperialism because the colonies were potential markets for manufactured goods, sources of raw materials, and channels for surplus population (Mills, par, 17). Actually, the proponents of imperialism by Western powers usually used economic reasons to encourage policies of empire-building and imperial expansion. According to King of the Belgians, Leopold, colonies were the main source of Britain's economic wealth and power.

A major example that demonstrates that imperialism was fueled by economic purposes is imperialism in China that started way before the commencement of the new imperialism. While the Western powers did not conquer and occupy entire regions, they forced advantageous trade agreements at gunpoint. Prior to the 19th Century European imperialism, trade between China and Europe was focused on in demand luxuries though the Chinese government was determined to lessen foreign trade and influence. However, Britain focused on enhancing terms of the China trade during the period of imperialism through claims to receive special trading privileges. The second example of economic gains being one of the major reasons for European imperialism is French colonialism in northern Africa. While France invaded Algeria, other Europeans soon outnumbered the French and carried out numerous economic activities because of the benefit of such activities to Europe (Coffin & Stacey, p.533).

World Power Status:

The second major reason that fueled imperialism is the pursuit of world power status that had economic reasons attached to it. The pursuit of world power status was also fueled by internal political challenges and international tensions that characterized the period of imperialism. The internal political tensions or political problems were caused by economic changes while international tensions were due to the fragile balance of power in the European continent. Actually, the European continent had been radically changed by the rise of a powerfully unified Germany and Italy. The region was also battling the destabilizing process of speedy disintegration of Ottoman power in southeastern Europe and the Middle East and the increasing rebellion in Ireland against British rule ("European Imperial Expansion," par, 3). Therefore, these countries sought to conquer several parts…[continue]

Cite This Essay:

"Non-Western World By Western Powers In The" (2013, May 08) Retrieved December 7, 2016, from http://www.paperdue.com/essay/non-western-world-by-powers-in-88383

"Non-Western World By Western Powers In The" 08 May 2013. Web.7 December. 2016. <http://www.paperdue.com/essay/non-western-world-by-powers-in-88383>

"Non-Western World By Western Powers In The", 08 May 2013, Accessed.7 December. 2016, http://www.paperdue.com/essay/non-western-world-by-powers-in-88383

Other Documents Pertaining To This Topic

  • WWII History Making Decades WWII Present

    Diversity -- with the exception of homophobia -- was beginning to be commonly accepted and praised. Technology -- such as the use of DNA in criminology and the introduction of the PC -- was becoming more prominent in the lives of everyday Americans. In the Cold War, President Gorbachev asked for openness and economic freedom, while President Reagan asked him to tear down the Berlin Wall, which he did.

  • Power of China From the

    We must not forget, however, that, like most countries, China's economic leaps are tied to her political security. China's new model shows the world that economic security is as important as military security. Presently, though, based on the economic and political model of the world, China is focused on domestic economic issues and a slow but steady rise to socio-political power and role as a strategic player in global

  • Western Sahara Conflict in the

    Which historians Yahia Zoubir and Daniel Volman describe this way: At the same time, they [the Judges] are in accord in providing indications of a legal tie of allegiance between the Sultan and some, though only some, of the tribes of the territory, and in providing indications of some display of the Sultan's authority or influence with respect to those tribes." For the court to have found in the favor of

  • Non Traditional Security Threats and the EU

    Non-Traditional Security Threats and the EU Theoretical Study Terrorism Weapons of Mass Destruction and Nuclear Threat Regional Conflict Organized Crime Environmental Degradation Non-Traditional Security Threats and the EU Due to the discontentment with the conventional concepts of security, the research schedule based on these conventional concepts, associated theoretical debates and their impact on policy, have given rise to the idea of non-traditional security. In the present era, it is universally acknowledged that security possesses multifaceted characteristics. Growing from

  • Western Religion

    Western Religion In his book, "Western Ways of Being Religious," (Kessler, 1999) the author Gary E. Kessler identifies the theological, philosophical and societal ramifications of the evolution of religion in the West. Christianity, Judaism and Islam can be traced to a single origin but their divergence has been very marked. Kessler sets his thesis very early in the book. He avers that there are two approaches to religion. One is to

  • Non American Culture the World Outside

    Workers are employed in fisheries, mining, and defense industries while the farmers work in the agricultural collectives. Standards of living are defined by the family background as to the political and ideological heritage. The children of revolutionaries (those who died in the Korean War) are given special educational opportunities at an elite school called the Mangyndae Revolutionary Institute. However, the children and descendants of those who were in collaboration

  • Western Civilization Define Its Major

    What is usually unconcealed is that much of the machinery and social prototypes which make up what is distinct as modernization were urbanized in the Western worlds. Whether these technical and social prototypes are essentially part of Western civilization is more complicated to respond. Many would dispute that the query cannot be responded by a reply from science and as an alternative is a worth question which should be


Read Full Essay
Copyright 2016 . All Rights Reserved