Globalization and its effects on non-Western cultural practices Prior to the onslaught of globalization China was a country of old traditions and customs. These customs are prevalent today but have changed in response to globalization. One such custom is guanxi.
Globalization is typically defined as the phenomena of increasing world interconnectedness. It is an undeniable feature of the modern world. The world is gets smaller as technology advances and economies become interlinked. Today's economic crisis is a prime example of globalization. One nation undergoing a financial crisis can easily become an international economic meltdown. Nederveen (2009) comments how modernization has advanced at the cost of eliminating cultural and biological diversity. This is causing alienation of groups who oppose modernity and change, causing disenchantment among many groups around the world. These groups oppose the Mcdonadlization, or the "increasing cultural standardization and uniformization" (Nederveen, 2009). Cultures around the world have to either adapt to modernization or see their traditions ebb away, as seen in China and Africa.
One nation, China, reaps many of the benefits globalization has to offer, seeing its economy turn into a global powerhouse and its position as an international power grow on the world stage (Veeck, 2011). China, while politically communist, has integrated capitalism into its economy allowing itself to be influenced by the tide of globalization. Major Chinese cities are filled with signs of capitalist excess. High end clothing stores sell their goods to rich Chinese citizens, stores such as Apple and Gucci are not rare, European and American brands are seen throughout the country being bought by millions of Chinese. One only has to examine a modern urban Chinese citizen to see the influences of westernization: the clothes, the ...
Gunthrie (2012) explains how guanxi plays a central part of social life in China. There are two definitions associated with the term. The first is social relations, as in having a good relationship with someone. The second concept is the gift economy. The gift economy is an interesting notion that suggests using social relations to conjure obligation and indebtedness as means of accomplishing something in the future. An example of this would be to treat your professor out to dinner, in order to obligate him to do some future favor that serves your interest, as in tutor your doctor's daughter, for free, to ensure your sick mother has a bed in a crowded hospital. This concept is deeply rooted in Chinese tradition, where the individual's identity is a social construct developed through relationships. Gunthrie (2012) argues that the Chinese government is trying to distance itself from such practices. It wants to build institutions that are free of social obligation and are subjective to a legal system. Guanxi needs to adapt in order to continue to pervade in all levels of Chinese society.
The rise of globalization in Africa has the same expected results seen throughout the globe (Adebayo, Adesina, 2009). The advent of globalization is the precursor for the uniform homogenizing (Briar-Lawson, Roth, 2011) of distinct cultures and the weakening of traditional culture values . Traditional…
Prior to the onslaught of globalization China was a country of old traditions and customs. These customs are prevalent today but have changed in response to globalization. One such custom is guanxi.
Globalization arguably began even before Marco Polo’s expeditions, possibly being traceable to Alexander the Great’s establishment of overland routes between Eastern Europe and India. The assumption that globalization equals Americanization is profoundly arrogant, and is also ignorant of the history, meaning, and implications of globalization. Globalization implies integration and interdependence of the world. Predating the United States of America, globalization nevertheless reached a peak in the 20th century, when a
And in fact, a study of the textual scriptures will actually reveal a number of ways in which the Quran had come to break new ground in the establishment of social protection for women within the context of said family roles. The evidence to defend this perspective is couched in a cultural and textual understanding alien to most Western critics of the lifestyle. Abu-Lughod determines to "argue that rather
The WTO Secretariat is based in Geneva, with around 600 staff members under a director-general. The main functions of the Secretariat include technical support for the WTO councils and other bodies, technical assistance for developing countries, world trade analysis, and liaison between the WTO and the public and media. The Secretariat can also provide legal assistance for dispute settlements, and advice to governments applying for membership in the WTO. The World
Behrman holds that it was weak political institutionalization rather than a weak civil society that shackled Weimar Germany. Unfortunately, many scholars of democracy theory and proponents of democratic culture have approached the Weimar Republic already holding the assumption that a democratic culture is necessary for a functioning democracy. With this assumption in place, they then debate whether Weimar Germany really possessed a "democratic culture." A democratic culture is often taken
Chapter 2: Review of Related Literature Chapter Introduction This chapter provides a review of the literature concerning hypnosis, Eastern Meditation, Chi Kung, and Nei Kung and how these methods are used to treat various ailments and improve physical and mental functioning. A summary of the review concludes the chapter. Hypnosis In his study, "Cognitive Hypnotherapy in the Management of Pain," Dowd (2001) reports that, "Several theories have been proposed to account for the effect of
Efforts in Australia to change this condition have on many levels been met with controversy and resistance, such as it demonstrated in the article by Clarke (2005). This would address the debate over the emergence of support for laws punishing 'racial vilification' at the public level. Prompting free speech debates and simulating an already robust debate over racial issues in Australia, this discussion highlights the inherent challenge of changing attitudes