Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formattingExcerpt from Term Paper:
Organizational Theory and Public Management:
Marx, Weber, and Freud.
When one considers the vast topic of organizational theory, one of the foremost names in modern study is undoubtedly Robert B. Denhardt. As a professor of Public Administration at Arizona State University, he has authored numerous works on the topic of human behavior as it relates to public organization. Of course, in today's world, this area of study is no small thing -- for in virtually every society the role of the organization -- especially the public/governmental organization is of tremendous influence on the lives of humankind. In such an environment, then, Denhardt has come to focus directly on issues of behavior and ethics -- and draws heavily on the ideas of Weber, Marx and Freud to illustrate just how the governing theories and scholarly assumptions concerning organizational theory has developed into what one recognizes today.
Of course, one of the most influential thinkers on organizational theory was Max Weber. According to Weber, the "organization" or the "bureaucratic administration" is a symbol of the exertion of control based on knowledge.
What was interesting about his work, however was his distinction between the idea of "power" and "authority"-where actual authority is distinguished by a belief in the "legitimacy" of the exercise of power (as apposed to despotism, for example). Further, another hallmark of his work was his classification of organizational power based on the type of legitimacy granted by those governed by that power.
One type of organizational power may be based on something akin to individual "charisma." In this case, there must be a kind of feeling of sacred right of the leading individual or organization. Thus, the "divine right of kings" in many nations (Historical England, for example), could be explained under this heading. So, too, may be a religious organization (Catholicism under the Pope), or even a small "cult" (The People's Temple).
Another type that Weber characterizes is one of "tradition." That is, perhaps traditionally (as in a cultural sense), an individual or society may bow to an organizational power because it has always been so -- for instance, within a Bedouin tribe where one allows a "tribal leader," to have authority or final "say" over the fate of the individual or individuals within the tribe.
Finally, Weber goes on to describe the third type of authority which is based on a "rational legal authority."
This is a type of authority legitimized or agreed upon based on a code of laws or rules that make it so. For example, most modern "democracies," especially ones like the one exemplified in the United States are based on the acquiescence and acceptance of authority based on democratic law (especially the laws of election).
However, this is not to say that the rational type of authority is always pure in form. On the contrary, it can be, at least to some extent, tinged by the other two types -- in effect producing a kind of legitimization of power based on the combined strength of cultural, ideological/moral, as well as legal ideologies. For example, the present Bush administration is in some ways buoyed by all three -- with some religious or nationalistic groups believing the nation is "destined" to be led by the present administration, that it is essential to pledge allegiance to the administration whether one believes in it or not (as in today's patriotic movement), and that it is supported by the "law."
Interestingly, it is here that one can note that, according to Weber, it is the degree to which any organization holds power based on the third category (that is though efficient bureaucracy), that the organization is at its most effective state. Thus, from the highest form of state government to the lower realms of business, those in power assure organizational power and efficiency by avoiding anything smacking of the first two forms of authority in favor of a formal system of rational and legal "rules." This is accomplished, according to Weber, by:
The establishment of a legal code can be established which can claim obedience from members of the organization.
The implementation of a system of abstract rules which are applied to particular cases; and administration looks after the interests of the organization within the limits of that law.
The person(s) exercising authority also obeys this impersonal order.
Only through being a member does the member obey the law.
Obedience is due not to the person who holds the authority but to the impersonal order which has granted him this position.
According to Denhardt, another figure greatly responsible for the nature of organizational theory today was Karl Marx. Unlike Weber, Marxist thought focuses greatly on the nature of power in organization not as it pertains to efficiency as a means by which financial control profit is made -- largely at the expense of the worker. Thus, instead of organizational control as a means by which efficiency is gained, exploitation is the order of the day. Thus, organized control is, according to Marx, one of the key causes of conflict based on class stratification and alienation from the society in which they live.
Clearly, it is difficult for one to see the Marxist perspective reflected in Capitalistic societies, especially within the United States. However, there does remain a strong cultural tendency to value human interest with regard to fairness, egalitarianism, and well-being. Although this is largely absent from the highest "powers-that-be," this tendency can at times temper the "bottom line" that can cause the alienation that Marx speaks of. However, there still remains a strong push toward the universal definition of "efficiency" as pertaining to financial efficiency rather than the efficiency of egalitarian human satisfaction and comfort.
Finally, Denhardt also describes how the work of Freud influences modern conceptions of organizational theory. Although few lay people bring issues of power with regard to organizational authority to mind when they think of Freud, they do often bring to mind "unconscious symbols."
Further, due to these unconscious symbols, " ... Each of us has a representation, a "prototype" or "script" of our self, others, events. These scripts are carried within us and they affect how we react across situations ... "
Thus, within an organizational framework -- particularly a framework of power (say, managerial), those scripts can affect the operation of the organization in positive or negative ways wholly independent of the "reality" of the situation.
So, too, according to Freud's theory, individuals may react to those in power due to their internalized scripts (largely gleaned in childhood). This too may be far removed from "reality" and may cause unexpected or adverse effects to the efficiency of the organization (take, for example, an employee going "postal"). Additionally, other purely psychological phenomena can also affect the organization. Take, for example obsessive compulsive tendencies. Although may might point to a particularly "driven" employee or manager as an example of shining efficiency, that drive may be attributable to a kind of psychological flaw rather than any real merit or drive based on genuine organizational need.
Of course, the benefit of understanding just how Freud's theories may impact organizational theory lies in its power to recognize potentially harmful personality traits (harmful with regard to the health of the organization). Thus, although it may seem on the surface to have an extremely driven "workaholic" type in charge of any given enterprise, such a personality may actually have a negative organizational effect with regard to employees or other "subject" individuals. In the end the organizational efficiency may be jeopardized by these "narcissistic" or obsessive types.
In the end Denhardt makes several interesting observations concerning organizational theory with regard to public management in the United States. However, understanding some of the key sources of theory can help identify the extent to which the points espoused by Weber, Marx and…[continue]
"Organizational Theory And Public Management Marx Weber " (2005, February 22) Retrieved October 25, 2016, from http://www.paperdue.com/essay/organizational-theory-and-public-management-62389
"Organizational Theory And Public Management Marx Weber " 22 February 2005. Web.25 October. 2016. <http://www.paperdue.com/essay/organizational-theory-and-public-management-62389>
"Organizational Theory And Public Management Marx Weber ", 22 February 2005, Accessed.25 October. 2016, http://www.paperdue.com/essay/organizational-theory-and-public-management-62389
The theory sees human organizational behaviors and conceptions culturally bound, rather than natural, unlike advocates of systems theory. Systems theory has been more influenced by sociology and linguistics than the natural sciences. Analyzing symbolic interpretations may be more useful in organizations serving diverse populations: if a public health organization wants to alleviate the prevalence of diabetes in an area, it is not enough to more effectively disseminate information through the
Weber and Marx on Labor In the 19th century, leading social theorists such as Karl Marx and Max Weber believed that because its many inherent contradictions, the capitalist system would inevitably fall into a decline. More than a century later, however, the capitalist system is far from dead. Rather, it appears to be further entrenched, encircling the world in the stranglehold of globalization. Despite the continued growth of capitalism, however, this paper argues
Many different views abound on the origins of modern capitalism, causalities that range from economic to political, from religious to cultural, or for some, an amalgamation of societies need to expand and the resources necessary to fuel that expansion. Max Weber's the Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism is a study of the relationship between the ethics of ascetic Protestantism and the emergence of the spirit of modern capitalism.
Public Administration: Case Study on Health Care Institution This work will examine public administration theories and concepts along with individuals that have contributed to the field of public administration while simultaneously reviewing the case study set out for examination in this work in writing. The case study relates a hospital matter in which the hospital has received $250,000 funding which is not earmarked resulting in several key administrative personnel in the
labor force and explain how the unemployment rate is calculated. Shortcomings of the current methods of measuring labor force participation rate and unemployment Labor force is people between 16 and 65 years of age either employed or seeking employment. Labor force includes students, retirees, and prisoners, those engaged in gainful employment as well as persons without reported income. In the United States of America, unemployment rate is calculated from the monthly
All of the transportation agencies were consolidated into one big agency -- the new Department of Transportation in 1966, establishing the National Transportation Safety Board as an agency that was independent inside of the department. This new board was also given the responsibility of determining the "probable cause" of: 1) highway accidents selected in cooperation with the states; 2) every passenger train accident, fatal railway accidents, and any railroad
The subjects were 613 injured Army personnel Military Deployment Services TF Report 13 admitted to Walter Reed Army Medical Center from March 2003 to September 2004 who were capable of completing the screening battery. Soldiers were assessed at approximately one month after injury and were reassessed at four and seven months either by telephone interview or upon return to the hospital for outpatient treatment. Two hundred and forty-three soldiers