Origins and Rise of National Term Paper
- Length: 9 pages
- Sources: 6
- Subject: Drama - World
- Type: Term Paper
- Paper: #38157807
Excerpt from Term Paper :
Nevertheless, in the immediate period, due to the increasing prosperity, the Republican left started to benefit from the people's trust and this was proven as well by the elections in 1928. Moreover, the coalition formed by the German's people Party with the three Republican parties was undoubtedly considered a change. However, the situation was not to last long and one year afterwards in Germany the first signs of an economic depression have made themselves felt. As a consequence, people started to mistrust the political change they had sustained and that allowed the left-wing and right-wing radicalism to gain legitimacy, a fact which led to tensions of the parties which sustained those currents of thought on the political scene. In this situation, one of the logical measures, which later determined the appearance of Fascism, was that the Socialists, under the pressure of the fear that their sustainers would embrace Communism, became reticent to the economic measures which were thought to solve the problem raised by unemployment. On the other hand, the German's People's Party tried to assure their position by promoting a rather nationalistic attitude in the foreign policy. This tendency was increased by an unexpected event, mainly the death of Gustav Stressman, who had exerted a moderate influence in the German People's Party. His disappearance, together with the officials' inability to agree upon economic measures to defeat the crisis, brought the split between the right and the left wings within the government in March 1930.
Another reason for the disintegration of the party and for the formation f the Nazis Party in Germany consisted in the belief, embraced by many politicians of the time, that the reinstallation of the monarchy - which was believed to be a more authoritarian regime - would solve the problems which had occurred in the past years. Therefore, these people chose as chancellor in 1930 a rather nationalist member of the Center Party, Heinrich Bruning. He came with new convictions and ideas, believing that Germany could defeat the economic crisis only through deflations and other economic measures alike, but his financial proposal have been refused.
The clear proof that his policies were not what the Germans desired were clearly illustrated by their electoral behavior during on September 14, 1930, when they showed a stronger sustenance for the right, but not for the German People's Party or for the German Nationalist Party, which had been on Bruning's side, but for the extremist National Socialists, or Nazis and their leader Adolph Party. In my opinion, this point in history, the elections in 1930 have been decisive for the promotion of a wrong ideology, "the ideology of death', as the number of seats occupied by members of the Nazi Party was changed from 15 into 107.
The reasons for this change of perspectives of the Germans might be put on many reasons: the crisis they were encountering, the unrealistic economic measures of Bruning and the disillusion they felt because of the parties they had sustained until that moment. I addition, the new extremist ideology which was about to occur seemed promising in many perspectives; young people, a completely new ideology, which was promising to bring together the most important ideas of the 20th century, Nationalism and Socialism and, besides that, the way proposed for the rehabilitation of the country.
In order to be understood the unusual sustenance for Hitler's party, a few ideological circumstances should be mentioned: practically, Hitler wanted to suggest that what made possible for him the two together was the belief that "racial thinking would lead to national greatness and social justice"; thus, "he concluded that only a ruthlessly united and racially purified Germany could survive in the brutal struggle with other races and nations."
Thus, it became only a matter of time to see when the Nazi Party would come to power. Even though the whole government was foreseeing that, the only one who kept his self-trust was Bruning, who thought that the continuation of his policies would be endless. The greatest mistake of the time consisted in the customs union treaty signed with Austria, signed on March 1930, which was contradicting the direction in the foreign policy the country had followed until then. Thus, the political conflict crated by the act led to a great financial crisis which occurred in 1931 in Vienna, being afterwards extended to Germany and even to Great Britain. Moreover, the re-established relationships with London and Paris, two great former enemies, because of the need for financial relief led to the damage of prestige of Bruning and his policies. All these failures determined the end of his political career and, in March 1932, he was replaced by Hindenburg, who won the elections with 53% of the votes, whileas Hitler gained 36.8%. Even though the difference in votes was quite high, they still showed a clear direction: the extremist one. The tendency became so clear that even the Conservatives started to believe in it and commonly decided that only the establishment of an authoritarian government could bring back the monarchic era. Therefore, they decided to cooperate with the Nazi Party.
A similar option seemed to be embraced by The German people's Party, which new leader, Bruning's successor, Papen, thought that sustaining Hitler for the position of chancellor was the only solution for his party to gain the power again. What Papen thought was that Hitler would not have enough freedom of action to fulfill the goals of the National Socialists if surrounded by a conservative government. In this situation, Adolph Hitler was appointed chancellor on the 30th of January 1933. In the same evening, the Nazi celebrated the event with a parade which was meant to signify that a new era had begun in the German history. Actually, a new bloody era was about to begin in all Europe, since the Nazism raised in Italy in quite the same period is a striking event. Practically, the whole continent was condemned.
The reasons for which the politicians decided to sustain the Nazi Party were because they hoped they could easily control its members and its leader as well. At least these were Papen's and the Conservatives' beliefs. This points out clearly that they had no idea why the German people was attracted to them and did not know anything about Hitler's personality or about the intrigues and calculations that helped their ideology to be embraced.
The arrival to power of the Nazis reflected the disappearance of the bourgeois parties from the political scene. Once with the split which occurred within the German People's party and German Democratic Party, the liberalism and social-democracy were gone from Germany.
One of the main reasons for the possibility of the authoritarians be able to impose such drastic measures was their great sustenance. The supporters of the National Socialists were of various kinds: workers, who were tired of their hard existence, members of the nobility, who thought themselves to be part of the Arian race and believed in its victory, and even some Conservative thinkers, especially those who were nostalgic after the Wilhelmian period.
Practically, the Nazism was considered to be a great chance, especially for the young generation, who was fearful about its future; on the other hand, peasants and small-towns citizens were afraid by a possible industrialization and by living in a republic. The great Nazist class was in other words, the middle class, especially the lower middle class. The reasons for their choice were manifold: "They had been hit hard by the inflation. Despite some improvement made in the 1920s, the economic situation remained precarious for the owners of small industries faced with overwhelming competition from the large-scale industries. Shopkeepers found their business suffering because of department-stores and the white-collars working in factories, offices and store did not even enjoy the minimum protection afforded by trade unions. Most members of the lower middle-classes became convinced of the incompetence and corruption of those whom the republican form of government brought into power.
But they were not aware either of what was going to happen: the death of the greatest war in history, great destructions, hard recovery and the long-time period for Germany to regain a good image on the international plan. All of these because of the uncontrolled ambitions of a single man: he was thought to be crazy, to be absurd, and to be a killer. Actually, what he really wanted was to have the world at its disposal. The entire essence of the Nationalist Socialist ideas can be summed up into only one word: Hitler.
Felix GILBERT, The end of the European Era: 1890 to the Present," W.W. Norton Company, New York, 1981 pp. 270;
AJ.P. TAYLOR, "The origins of the Second World War," Oxford university Press, 1999, 246 pp;
Stanley G. PAINE, "Fascism. Comparison and definition', Madison: The University…