8 billion, and primary metal manufactures, $1.4 billion (Exports pp). Together, these five manufactured product categories accounted for 61% of the state's total exports of goods in for that year (Exports pp).
In dollar terms, the leading manufactured export growth category is transportation equipment, rising $294 million between 1999 to 2003, while others included miscellaneous manufactures, up $248 million, processed foods, up $192 million, and primary metal manufactures, up $171 million (Exports pp). In percentage terms, the fastest growing manufactured export category is fabric mill products, which grew 70%, from $99 million in 1999 to $169 million in 2003, while others included processed foods, up 52%, miscellaneous manufactures, up 48%, and beverages and tobacco products, up 48% (Exports pp).
The Port of Pittsburgh is the largest inland river port in the United States and the 11th largest port of any kind (Water pp). The Port Commission is the central point for information on inland waterway transportation and waterfront industrial site location within the ten county, 200-mile waterway of southwestern Pennsylvania (Water pp). In 1994, it handled some 49.1 million tons (Water pp). Located at the beginning of the inland waterway system, the Port of Pittsburgh receives primary goods by barge, adds labor and technology, and sends products to world markets through inter-modal networks (Water pp). Recognizing the importance of a modern, efficient navigation system to the economy of the Ohio Valley, in 1981 the Governors of Ohio, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and Kentucky, mobilized by the private sector, launched DINAMO, the Association for the Development of Inland Navigation in America's Ohio Valley, headquartered in Pittsburgh (Water pp).
Approximately sixty percent, 17 million acres of the state's 28 million acres of land are covered by forests (Woodlands pp). Private forest landowners own seventy-one percent, 12.5 million acres, of the Commonwealth's forestland (Woodlands pp). "These forests provide a variety of resources including timber, wildlife habitat, water purification, aesthetics and recreation" (Woodlands pp). The timber and forest products industry is the fourth largest in the state, providing jobs for over 90,000 workers and generating roughly $5 billion annually for the state (Woodlands pp). Nationally, Pennsylvania ranks first in hardwood production, and forest-based recreation is also a large part of the state's second largest industry, tourism (Woodlands pp).
In December 2003, Bruce Katz, director of the Brookings Institution Center on Urban and Metropolitan Policy presented his agency's stark report on development in Pennsylvania yesterday to a meeting held by Sustainable Pittsburgh (What pp). The 120-page report concluded "that Pennsylvania spends a disproportionate share of development money on outlying areas while abandoning established communities" (What pp). Moreover, the state is losing "too many" college graduates to other states, "has too many municipalities that do community planning separately rather than regionally, and has no organized vision of the state's future" (What pp). According to Ken Klothen, executive director of the Governor's Center for Local Government Services, Pennsylvania is among the slowest growing in the country, but is second in the country in using new land for development (What pp). It was recommended that the state reinvest in its older, established communities, "the kind of places where young adults want to live," or else Pennsylvania will not be prepared to participate in the emerging global economy (What pp). It was concluded that the state should make it as easy to develop in the urban areas as it is in the green-fields, it cannot build a competitive future by sprawling and abandoning, and moreover, the oldest most established communities are losing population (What pp). According to Katz, neighborhood decline weakens cities, towns and older suburbs, and if cities and boroughs collapse, Pennsylvania will not be able to build a healthy competitive region (What pp). Thus, Pennsylvania has a long way to go before it will be a sustainable state.
Coal Mining in Pennsylvania." Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection. http://www.dep.state.pa.us/dep/deputate/enved/go_with_inspector/coalmine/Coal_Mining_in_Pennsylvania.htm
This is a web page from the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental
Protection web site. It provides a history of the state's coal mining industry.
Gordon, John Steele. "Iron and Steel Industry." Readers Companion to American History. http://college.hmco.com/history/readerscomp/rcah/html/ah_046100_ironandsteel.htm
This Internet web site gives a history of the iron and steel industry, from ancient times to present day.
This is a web page from the Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources web site and includes an extensive look at the state's forestry. It also provides access to various links, such as state parks, endangered species, maps, trails, and outdoor activities.
This is an online Internet encyclopedia that offers an overall history of the state of Pennsylvania, including history, politics, demographics and geography.
Pennsylvania I. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition; 2/24/2005
This is a brief encyclopedia article describing Pennsylvania's history.
Pennsylvania: Exports, Jobs, and Foreign Investments. http://www.ita.doc.gov/td/industry/otea/state_reports/penna.html#SMEs
This Internet site lists information prepared by the Office of Trade and Industry Information, International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, concerning Pennsylvania exports, jobs and foreign investments from sources such as State Export-Related Employment Project, International Trade Administration and Bureau of the Census, Exporter Data Base, International Trade Administration and Bureau of the Census, Bureau of Economic Analysis, Origin of Movement State Export Series, Bureau of the Census.
Water Transportation. Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh
This Internet site gives information concerning the state's rivers, waterfronts, and watersheds. However, it appears to be incomplete, concerning the entire state's water systems and many of the links available also seem incomplete regarding information.
This Internet site provides information concerning Pennsylvania's forests and forestry products.
What others are saying about "Back to Prosperity: A Competitive Agenda for Renewing
Pennsylvania." The Brookings Institution released Back to Prosperity: A Competitive Agenda for Renewing Pennsylvania on December 7, 2003. http://www.sustainablepittsburgh.org/NewFrontPage/Media_Response.htm
This web page lists comments concerning the Brookings report regarding Pennsylvania's…