Presence of Non-Romans Throughout the Research Paper

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They operated in a unit called a comitatus. This meant that they were a war band, which was attached to their leaders by personal loyalty. This system now became apparent with the native Roman troops, largely due to the system that allowed for distinguished officers to train their own soldiers (during the course of imperial service)."

This is illustrating how non-Romans influenced the army. In the case of the Germanic tribes, they reorganized what tools and tactics were embraced by military units. This was supposed to address the immediate threats they were facing. Yet, as time went by these individuals began to become more important strategically. When this occurred, they could use these ideas to overthrow the government in the West (leading to the downfall of the Roman Empire).

While many of the troops for Asia Minor, were more loyal and used their tactics to create hybrid units (between themselves along with the Romans). When this occurred, the Roman army took on more of a cavalry-based focus (which utilized strategic advantages to engage the enemy). This made it more difficult for the Germanic tribes and other groups to defeat the entire army in battle. At the same time, the focus of these mercenaries prevented one single group from dominating the military. It is at this point that they were able to establish more loyalty among forces and how they achieved their objectives.

Over the course of time, this would ensure that Constantinople would become: the Eastern capital of the empire and the strategic location for the government to withdraw to (after the fall of Rome itself). This allowed the empire to continue, despite the challenges it was facing from within. In this aspect, the use of non-Germanic troops helped to secure and prevent them from overrunning strategic locations.

How the Changes in Christianity Impacted the Army?

Like what was stated previously, Christianity has been a growing movement in Rome. What happened is many of the beliefs and ideas went directly against the pagan religions that were practiced by the state. This meant that Christians were often persecuted for their non-support of officially sanctioned customs and traditions. Moreover, the idea that Christ was above the power of Cesar made most officials uncomfortable with their presence. This led to a series of purges that were directed at their communities.

However, despite these challenges, Christians continued to influence Roman society. In the second and third centuries, they were able to use legal tactics to directly question the Emperor. This is where they could publically ask a question to the Emperor and they would have to respond (under the law). What the Christians wanted to know is how come they did not have the same kind of protections as other minorities (such as: the Jews)? As they did not have to participate in: public holidays and rituals. This angered many Christians, who felt that they were being directly targeted by the government. After trying to answer these questions, is when they began to have an influence on the Emperor.

At the same time, the peace and stability of the Roman Empire created the ideal conditions for Christianity to spread from one region to the next. This caused more people to abandon their traditional pagan beliefs and begin to practice Christian ideals. Over the course of time, these views would influence prominent Roman citizens. After Constantine became Emperor, is when the religion would be widely accepted.

These changes had an impact on Roman identity and loyalty by questioning if the current political, economic and military structure would continue. When this happened, many people began to believe that the prophases discussed in the book of Revelations were coming true (from: the bold incursions of the German tribes into key areas). Moreover, the inability to continue to promote stability meant that the army was becoming weak.

The spread of Christianity across national and ethnic boundaries was undermining the authority of the government. This was occurring with the Emperor being seen as lower than God (by serving as a messenger). Over the course of time, this changed the aura of the Emperor and society itself. It is at this point that national and ethnic identities would be utilized to protect each other against the weakening empire. This is when the feudal system began to dominate Roman life. Christianity played an important part, by highlighting how the predications in Revelations could be impacting events that were unfolding.

The reliance on the Germanic and Asia Minor-based military units only added to these worries. Once planners began to use them as part of their strategy, is when different feudal establishments were created to protect private interests. Christianity played a role in the process, by showing how the empire was becoming weak and major transformations were about to occur. This fear, created shifts in how people seen Rome's identity and their loyalty to the empire. These different factors contributed to the deteriorating security situation during the fourth century.

The Effect of Military Transformations on the Society and Roman Identity / Loyalty

The military transformations were a direct reflection of Roman society. What had happened is many of the different legions were once considered to be capable of effectively dealing with the threat from Germanic tribes. This was accomplished through using reserve troops that were supported by large outposts. The basic idea was to effectively cut off the retreat of horse-based cavalry that were involved in raiding parties on border areas.

The introduction of the Roman cavalry was an effective strategy in supporting and directly engaging raiders before they had a chance to escape. However, as the empire continued to expand and everyone became more prosperous. It became harder to create an army that had the same level of professionalism. Instead, there was a reliance on non-Roman troops to address the security needs. This changed the identity of the army and the kinds of strategies that were utilized.

In the case of society, the army was a reflection of how the Romans had become a victim of their own success. This occurred with many administrators and planners willing to innovate in order to address the underlying challenges. As a substitute, they began to rely on different segments of society (i.e. minorities and other ethnic groups). Over the course of time, this would create shifts in Roman identity and loyalties. When this happened, many individuals were no longer willing to support the army. Instead, they had become Christians who believed that many of the current practices were a part of a larger plan. As they wanted to protect their own interests over those of: the community and state (which helped contribute to the decline of the Roman government).


Clearly, the Roman army was weakened by the introduction of non-Roman troops. This was a part of larger trend in society, with many ethnic and religious groups (i.e. Christians) beginning to play a dominate role. Over the course of time, these transformations were resulting in the diluting of Roman identify and loyalty. This was occurring with a reliance on mercenaries, who reduced the underlying levels of professionalism in the army.

At the same time, Christianity transformed the customs and traditions of civil society / the military. These trends created a situation where many people believed that Rome's decline was predicted in the book of Revelations. As a result, they were no longer loyal to the empire and began to create a feudal system that protected the wealthy against incursions from Germanic tribes (who were becoming more brazen). This is illustrating how many Romans lost their sense of identity because of these changes. The shifts in its military structure were signs of increasing internal and external threats the empire was facing.


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Clark, Gillian. Christianity and Roman Society. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004.

Dukier, William. World History. Sydney: Cengage, 2009.

Keane, William. This is Christianity. Cheltenham: Stanley Thomas, 1995.

Whitby, Michael. "Deus Nobiscum Christianity." The Institute of Classical Studies, 42, no. 71 (1998): 191 -- 208.

"The Roman Army," Roman Empire, last modified 2012,

"The Roman Army," Roman Empire, last modified 2012,

William Dukier, World History (Sydney: Cengage, 2009), 330 -- 344.

"The Roman Army," Roman Empire, last modified 2012,

"The Roman Army," Roman Empire, last modified 2012,

"The Roman Army," Roman Empire, last modified 2012,

William Dukier, World History (Sydney: Cengage, 2009), 330 -- 344.

"The Roman Army," Roman Empire, last modified 2012,

William Dukier, World History (Sydney: Cengage, 2009), 330 -- 344.

"The Roman Army," Roman Empire, last modified 2012,

William Dukier, World History (Sydney: Cengage, 2009), 330 -- 344.

William Keane, This is Christianity (Cheltenham: Stanley Thomas, 1995), 56 -- 57.

Michael Whitby, "Deus Nobiscum Chrsitianity," the Institute of Classical Studies, 42, no. 71 (1998): 191 -- 208.

William Keane, This is Christianity (Cheltenham: Stanley Thomas, 1995), 56…[continue]

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