Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formattingExcerpt from Term Paper:
Instead, he chose to preserve the building's countless accretions so as to reflect the evolution of domestic life over three centuries. This approach, which can be seen at many of SPNEA's house museums today, has since become a distinguishing feature of SPNEA's preservation philosophy" (Redfern para. 2).
It was in 1915 that Appleton made his first visit to Newbury's fabled Spencer-Peirce-Little House, where he immediately recognized the importance of this imposing stone mansion. He recognized that the two-story brick porch was unique in New England. He kept in touch with the Little family with some regularity, hoping to secure the preservation of the property. Appleton died in 1947, but his thirty-year relationship with the Little family bore fruit in 1971 when Amelia and Agnes Little arranged for the land, buildings, and furnishings to come to SPNEA when they died (Redfern para. 2).
Norman Morrison Isham
Appleton learned much from Norman Morrison Isham, though he departed from the teacher in several respects. Isham co-wrote two seminal books on old building, Early Rhode Island Houses in 1895 and Early Connecticut Houses in 1900. Isham was an architect himself and designed some important Colonial Revival buildings. He also supervised restoration projects and directed archaeological excavations: "Influenced by a scientific regimen in analyzing the structure, materials, and environment of old buildings, Isham perhaps epitomized his generation's blend of antiquarianism, archaeology, and architecture" (Lindgren 72).
Isham was an architect in Rhode Island and was known for his study and restoration of colonial buildings. He was born in Hartford, Connecticut and educated at Brown University. For six years, he worked at the Providence architectural firm of Stone, Carpenter, and Wilson, and he then established his own office in 1893. he was made a Fellow of the American Institute of Architects in 1913 (the Architectural Archives of the University of Pennsylvania 3).
Isham viewed the earliest buildings of New England as an expression of the medieval world, noting that for one thing, Rhode Island had been settled by artisans who were themselves descendants of Medieval craftsmen. Isham agreed with Appleton that the artisans of the seventeenth century had preserved "the traditions of their trades" in these structures. The prevailing belief at the time had been that these craftsmen had been "wasteful and clumsy" but Isham referred to them as "economical" and "skillful in handling their material:
Just as the English crafts movement had praised the roughness, irregularity, and variety of preindustrial carpentry, so, too, did Isham refute the charge that the work of early Yankees was ugly, haphazard, and barren. Those early craftsmen had been "artistic," he said in his own twist of Horatio Greenough's adage "form follows function," because they "solved the problem before them in the simplest manner, with logical use of the material which they had at hand, and with good arrangement of line and mass." Unlike his own day, those buildings were simple, but "simplicity, as we are just beginning to see, is the cardinal virtue in architecture." (Lindgren 72)
One of the differences between Isham and Appleton is in their loyalty to different groups in society, Appleton to the patrician class of which he was an example, and Isham to a more democratic base: "Yankee preservationists of his ilk held a subterranean streak of populism, mixed with antimodernism, in their admiration of this folk tradition" (Lindgren 72). Lindgren notes other similarities between Isham and Appleton, however, in the way they were dedicated to preserving certain types of architecture and certain influences in building:
All the while, these antiquaries were a world apart from those architects who were experimenting with a confusing range of Classical, Renaissance, and Colonial revivals that showed more panache than restraint, more machine-made decoration than an artisan's soul. Meanwhile, Isham and Appleton were laboring to save the medieval vernacular, which had been shaped by common men and revealed, unlike academic work, a building's intimate contact with the soil, the times, and the craftsman's hand. Paradoxically, while Isham was praising those earlier artisans who had clung to their traditions, New England's workers were being robbed of their own customs and skills by profit-minded corporate managers who promoted Americanization, social order, and business efficiency in the name of progressivism. (Lindgren 73)
The sort of work Isham did can be seen in his commission in the 1930s to restore the Weaver farmhouse. After the restoration was startred, the house was given to SPNEA:
The first lean-to addition was also the first room restored during Isham's famed 1930's restoration. And it had been carefully done. Besides a huge fireplace, it still retains many of the original hand-planed, feather-edged, vertical pine boards, along with batten doors with wooden latches and strap hinges. The ceiling is exposed oak beam and the floor as well as ceiling above is wideboard. Of particular importance, this room also contains two of the original square-shaped, single casement, leaded glass windows. They too were carefully restored and re-hung where evidence had shown them to originally be. These windows provide some of the best evidence available of seventeenth century windows. The entirely restored room presents an excellent picture of a seventeenth century interior in Rhode Island. ("The Clement Weaver Home" para. 7)
Preservationists William Sumner Appleton and Norman Morrison Isham made their mark on the idea of preservation, left examples of their own work in this field, and in the case of Appleton created an ongoing organization dedicated to preservation. Appleton was more the Brahmin offering his expertise and ability in service of preservation for the American artisans of the past, while Isham had a more egalitarian vision of the value of preservation and of what sort of buildings should be preserved. Together, they set a pattern followed by many groups to this day. They restored a number of buildings personally and through organizations like SPNEA, founded by Appleton and supported by Isham and others for decades as the organization acquired properties and restored buildings across New England, Isham was an architect and so had a direct involvement in architectural restoration, while Appleton was well educated and contributed what he could to the process and to the organization of the society he founded.
The Architectural Archives of the University of Pennsylvania. University of Pennsylvania, 2003. http://www.philadelphiabuildings.org/faids/aaup/isham.pdf.
The Clement Weaver Home" (2007). April 29, 2007. p://circa1679.com/aboutus.aspx.
Lindgren, James M. Preserving Historic New England: Preservation, Progressivism, and the Remaking of Memory. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.
Mason, Randall and Max Page. Giving Preservation a History: Histories of Historic Preservation in the United States. New York: Routledge, 2004.
Redfern, Maggie. "Three Old Houses Cast Their Spell…[continue]
"Preservation Of Historic Sites And" (2007, April 30) Retrieved October 21, 2016, from http://www.paperdue.com/essay/preservation-of-historic-ites-and-38067
"Preservation Of Historic Sites And" 30 April 2007. Web.21 October. 2016. <http://www.paperdue.com/essay/preservation-of-historic-ites-and-38067>
"Preservation Of Historic Sites And", 30 April 2007, Accessed.21 October. 2016, http://www.paperdue.com/essay/preservation-of-historic-ites-and-38067
Although the program is still relatively small it has developed into a well respected method of preserving important American landmarks. The program works at the federal, state and local level to guarantee the protection and preservation of these designated sites. Now that we have a greater understanding of Historic preservation and landmarks, let us discuss the constitutional issues that arise as a result of historic preservation. Constitutionality of Historic Preservation Although
Preservation of Historical Buildings The economic and political contexts that influenced the practice of heritage conservation of historical buildings The prevalence of the practice of heritage conservation has been instigated with cultural concerns that arise from a developed human society, along with its gradual movement toward becoming a more technologically-advanced civilization. Primarily, heritage conservation, specifically of historical sites and buildings, was introduced as part of organizations' attempts to preserve humanity's cultural heritage.
More bad luck happened when there was an earthquake in 1948 that caused a lot of structural damage to buildings in Pioneer Square. Then in the late 1950s the Central Association of Seattle was created to upgrade the city's image and infrastructure, and the Seattle Center was built in 1962 for the World's Fair. In the late 1960s, the clean-up of Pioneer Square began, as buildings were renovated and
American History Your Highnesses have an Other World here, by which our holy faith can be so greatly advanced and from which such great wealth can be drawn," wrote Christopher Columbus to the king and queen of Spain following his third voyage to the Americas in 1498 (Brinkley 1). But even after visiting the New World three times he still had no idea what he had truly started, and he certainly
Archaeology is a social science, with an emphasis on the word science. This means that the work that is conducted is done in a systematic acquisition of new knowledge about nature and the body of already existing knowledge gained. The scientific method is based on careful observation and the testing of theories by experiments. Archaeology uses these scientific procedures to study antiquities such as the remains of buildings or monuments
Classic Antiquities Stopping Looting of Classic Greek and Roman Underwater Antiquities Sites Cultural artifacts that both describe how a group of people lived and demonstrates the art they contrived is precious to the people who consider themselves present members of that culture or, at the very least, are residents of the nation from which the culture originated. Unfortunately, the removal and sale of these artifacts has a long history, and the trade
Museum Methods museum is usually a non-profit organization with intent to provide education and enlightenment by the organized collection, preservation, interpretation and exhibit of items deemed to be of interest to the public or community. Historically, museums have evolved as collaborative projects to house collected works gathered for the appreciation of the current and future generations in our society. However, such definitions cannot be regarded as the last word on