Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formattingExcerpt from Term Paper:
Individuals scoring high on this scale are preoccupied about their health, tend to exaggerate symptoms, and are considered to be demanding and immature. Scoring high on this scale is associated with complaints of chronic pain, fatigue and weakness. Individuals scoring low on this scale are held to be: "Healthy, insightful, and optimistic" (MMPI, nd)
Scale Two - Depression: This scale is used for assessing symptomatic depression exhibited as poor morale, no hope for the future and life dissatisfaction. Elevated scores on this scale may mean clinical depression while moderate scores are indicative of an individual with a life that is characterized by poor self-worth and a lack of involvement. (MMPI, nd)
Scale Three - Hysteria: This scale is used for identifying patients who have reacted hysterically to stress. The individual scores on this scale are related to "intellectual ability, educational background and social class." (MMPI, nd) Women and better educated individuals score higher on this scale. (MMPI, nd)
Scale Four - Psychopathic Deviate: This scale was originally developed for identification of patients with a psychopathic personality (asocial or amoral). The 50 items of this scale assess general social maladjustment and the absence of strongly pleasant experiences" also used as a "measure of rebelliousness." (MMPI, nd)
Scale Five - Masculine/Feminine: This scale was developed originally for identification of homosexual males. (MMPI, nd)
Scale Six - Paranoia: This scale was developed for identification of patients who have symptoms of being paranoid. (MMPI, nd)
Scale Seven - Psychasthenia: This scale was developed for measurement of the pattern labeled psychasthenia which is much like the obsessive compulsive disorder and has the characteristics of excessive doubts, compulsions, obsessions and unreasonable fears. (MMPI, nd)
Scale Eight - Schizophrenia: This scale is used for assessing schizophrenia in individuals however; this scale should not be interpreted in isolation due to other factors that may influence high scores on this scale. (MMPI, nd)
Scale Nine- Hypomania: This scale is used for assessing psychiatric patients with manifestations of hypomanic symptoms exhibited by elevated mood, accelerated speech and motor activity, irritability, flight of ideas, and brief periods of depression. (MMPI, nd)
Scale Ten - Social Introversion: Used to assess the individual's tendency to withdraw from social contacts and responsibilities. (MMPI, nd)
III. PSYCHOMETRIC INFORMATION:
This work will now examine the test reliability and validity scales of which there are ten scales and will further examine the internal validity of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory test.
TEST RELIABILITY & VALIDITY SCALES
The validity scales of the four original MMPI Scales are:
1. Cannot Say (?) Scale;
2. L Scale (lie);
3. F Scale; and 4. K Scale
The validity scales of the MMPI 2 Scales are 1. Back F (Fb) Scale
2. VRIN Scale
3. TRIN Scale
Cannot Say (?) Scale: This scale looks at the number of unanswered items which includes any items marked both true and false. Questions that are not answered are generally due to "carelessness, confusion, attempting to hide information about them, or they lack the information or experience that is necessary for a meaningful response. If ten or more questions are not answered the examiner must be cautious in the interpretation of answers. Where there are 30 or more unanswered questions the examiner does not interpret the results.
Lie (L) Scale" - This scale was developed for detection of an individual who attempts to present themselves in a light that is considered favorable and uses 15 items that are related to minor flaws and weaknesses that the normal individual does not have a problem with admission of but that detects those who are attempting to obscure even their minor flaws.
Scale" - This scale was developed for detection of "deviant or atypical ways of responding to test items and has three functions which are those of: (1) it's an index of test-taking attitude and is useful in detecting faking good or faking bad response sets; (2) if profile invalidity is ruled out, it is a good indicator or degree of psychopathology with higher scores indicative of greater psychopathology; (3) Scores on the F. Scale may be used for generation of inferences relating to other extra test characteristics and behaviors.
Scale" - This scale was introduced as a means of making more effective index of attempts by individuals being examined in denying psychopathology and in presenting themselves in a favorable light or for individuals who attempt opt exaggerate psychopathology to attempt to appear in a very unfavorable light.
Back F. Scale (Fb) - Refers to the original F. Scale and is analogous to the Standard F. scale except that the items are placed in the last half of the test. An elevated Back F. Scale score indicates that the examinee stopped paying attention to the test items that occurred later in the test and shift to a random pattern of responding.
VRIN Scale - This scale was used to indicate the individual tendency for inconsistent response to test items and consists of 76 pairs of items with similar or opposite content. Each inconsistent answer equals one raw score point added to the VRIN scale with a score greater than 13 indicative of inconsistency in responses given.
TRIN Scale (True Response Inconsistency) - This scale was developed for identification of persons who provide inconsistent response to items by giving true responses to items or giving false responses to other paired items. Two true or two false answers of some of the same items are indicative of inconsistent responding and raw score of above 13 or below 5 suggest random responding.
Estimates of internal consistency vary from -.05 to.96 with typical values ranging from.60 to.90. Scales 3, 5, and 9 are stated to be the least consistent with scales 1.7, and 8 appearing to be the most internally consistent.
IV. SUMMARY, IMPRESSIONS, and CRITIQUE
The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventories screening is used screening the personality characteristics for many different reasons and objectives. The MMPI is effective in revealing the different characteristics of the individual personality and is often used in the medical field for assessing the effectiveness of treatment. For instance, in a case study reported by Thomas and Sattlberger was to report the effects of alpha-decrease biofeedback training on a patient diagnosed with Anxiety Disorder. Three MMPI inventories were used in the objective measurement of treatment efficacy.!5 sessions of slow wave inhibit/fast wave increase EEG feedback training were administered with patients reporting significant reduction in anxiety-related symptoms." The MMPI tests were re-administered showing all the clinical scales within the normal ranges. (2006)
In a study of two depressed women who were trained with more than 34 sessions each EEG biofeedback using the Alpha Asymmetry protocol. The objective was to determine whether depression could be "alleviated when the subjects learned to increase the activation of the left hemisphere and/or decrease the activation of the right hemisphere." (Baehr, Rosenfeld and Baehr,
In order to assess the effectiveness of the training a MMPI -- 2 was administered both before and after training sessions for measuring changes in the depression or the personality factors. The MMPI-2 is stated to have been an effective measure for assessing the individuals involved in this case study.
The MMPI has been the focus of very thoughtful development and has through the years been the focus of much testing and assessment of individual personality factors as well as the MMPI itself being assessed for effectiveness. When properly administered by someone who is educated and trained for all the different factors that must be taken under consideration while the analysis of the MMPI results is being conducted, the MMPI is a very effective method of assessing the individual personality.
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Baehr, E.; Rosenfeld, J.P.; and Baehr, R. (2004) the Clinical Use of an Alpha Asymmetry Protocol in the Neurofeedback Treatment of Depression: Two Case Studies. Online available at (http://www.snr-jnt.org/journalnt/jnt (2-3)2.html.
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