Psychology Developmental Stages Using Freud, Erikson, Or Maslow's Theories
Development Stages of Life
Prenatal and Infancy
Liberace was born in West Allis, Wisconsin on May 16th, 1919. Liberace's mother was of Polish descent Frances Zuchowaska and his father Salvatore Liberace, was an immigrant from Formia, Italy. Liberace was born with a twin who died at birth and also had a caul on his head. Many cultures believe caulbearers bring good omens and luck with their births and cannot drown. How and why people are born and developing into adults going through all the growing pains have been argued for many centuries. This paper will discuss the life and times of one well know, publically troubled individual, Liberace.
According to Ellis and Hartley (2004)and Berk (2004)the theories of life development are explored by various researches and it is observed that most of the theories are presented by Maslow, Ericson, Kohlberg, Piaget, and Freud. The human beings are alike creators that experience similar stage in their respective lives. It is also a notable character that almost all human beings pass through similar changes in various stages of life. In general all these stages can be denoted as similar however the personal and environmental factors also influence the development and psychological implications.
The theories address the common characteristics of generalized nature and applicable for the human development. The arrangements of sequential nature are addressed in almost similar fashion by all theories and stages are also represented as time-based measures for addressing the relevance in human development. The stages of life development are relevant to understand the nature of earlier identified theories and their applicability with various perspectives of life. The life stages discussed in the section below comprises of a through approach starting from the initial stage as infant for Liberace and parenting up until the post adulthood. The individuals experience various developments throughout the stages. The research also addresses Liberace and the children born with caul.
Development Stages of Life:
The development stages of Liberace life are described distinctively according to various research perspectives. The psychological theories presented below addresses the issues in different perspective according to the approach taken through their work. The applicability of all these issues is also relevant in accordance with the approach taken to address specific issues. The medical and clinical basis is also developed on the basis of cognitive development theories and psychosexual theories of Freud (Berk, 2004).
There are various theories concerning the development of knowledge embodying the stages of human development. The psychoanalytic theories presented by Freud and Erikson are based on the explanations of human development in the context of unconscious forces exerting their influence on personality development. The personal environment is regarded as one of the major factor influencing human development. The intellectual development ofLiberaceis defined in terms of sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational and formal operational in the work of Jaen Piaget. It is also denoted as cognitive develop process theory (Ellis & Hartley, 2004).
Abraham Maslow is known for his work through humanistic approach in defining human development stages. The work suggests that human development is directly related to the humanistic psychology through fulfillment of individual's basic needs. The hierarchy of needs defined by Maslow starts form food security and leads to self-actualization.
One of the different perspectives of cognitive development is also observed through contextual theory perspectives. The important developments are observed through interacting with people around an individual are addressed in this segment of psychological theory of human development. It is somehow similar to the cultural development theories. The Skinner's view of learning and development is explained as the development stages are achieved through learning. The reinforcement of human behaviors is achieved through implementation of learning and increase in knowledge. It is also observed that the social cognitive theory is also derived from the work done by Skinner (Ellis & Hartley, 2004).
Prenatal and Infancy:
The birth of twins named Liberaceand his brother with a caul on his head was a unique experience for the parents. It is also noted that children with caul doesn't represent any superstation. The cultural and uneducated nature of Liberace's parents lead to the belif that it is something special however it is purely a biological difference. According to Hartson and Payne (2007) the physical performance including language and emotional development of a human being is addressed by various theories including Frued and Erickson. These stages of human development are related not only to the human individuals but multiple factors influence the development. The importance of parental contribution and infancy stage is also addressed by psychological theories (Upadlhyaya, 2009). The parental role in childes development plays a significant role in adhering to the techniques and learning for later life. The emotional development is specifically attributed towards the ability to cope with stressful situations in later life. The transactions in the parenting plan influence childes ability for self-efficacy and self-regulation.
The Ericson's view is contrary to Freud as it is emphasizes on eight distinct stage of development starting from the birth of a child. The child's social environment is considered the basis of defining the development stages throughout the work of Ericson. The challenges and crisis faced during a stage are required to be addressed in order to lean forward to the next stage. The first stage starting from the birth up to one year is denoted as the stage experiencing the trust and mistrust (Ray, 2011). Liberaceas an infant developed a scenes of trust form their caregivers in early stages to fulfill their needs. On the contrary the suspension and mistrust is developed on the basis of stranger perception and others are perceived incapable to fulfill their desires with respect to fulfillment of the childes needs.The first stage of Liberacewas significant in defining the early development of trust and subsequent trust developed in order to seek support for fulfillment of their desires. The trust developed in the first stages of early childhood is carried forward throughout the life of an individual (Hartson & Payne, 2007).
The biological influence of parenting characteristics is also observed relevant for the physical development of a child. Liberace's and his twin brother's healthy birth is also dependent on thequality of nutrition. It is important to note that infant's weight and other biological characters are measured in accordance with the mother's health. The healthy mother can ensure a qualitative development of physical and psychological characteristics in the child. The mother's personal characters are also reflected in the health of a child. The mothers with smoking and drinking habits are likely to observe severe issues during child birth. The caul death, spontaneous abortion, neonatal deaths, and still births are major factors influencing the parental biological and developmental influences (Charlesworth, 2010). According to Upadlhyaya (2009) the artificial rupture of the membrane (AROM) and rapture of the water bag during last or early stages of pregnancy is also associated with the careful and healthy nutrition of mother. Similarly the case with Liberace's twin brother's death also holds biological causes rather than any supernatural cause.
According to the psychodynamic theories presented in the work of Freud and Ericson suggests the influence of emotional life and physical development in early childhood. Liberacealso shares a multi-ethnic and multi-cultural background and home atmosphere. It is also noted that the basic foundation of early childhood development is based on the overlapping frameworkof brain growth and maturation, sensory information, and quality of social interactions. It is also noted that the time related progression of Liberacein the skills and abilities is also related to the growth and changes in the stages of human development. The impacts of adult's environment and self-abilities are directly related to the childes behavior and internal learning capacities from external environments (Robinson, 2010).
The theoretic framework of Freud and Ericson also explains its relationships with the early childhood education. The adult behaviors of children are based on the early childhood practices and perceptions. The gathering of information form their surrounding environments are followed throughout later development stages of life. The Liberaceas a child was suggested to take advantage of the learning and education through early childhood plays. The natural folds of development are facilitated through the early childhood development programs designed on the basis of theories of psychological developments. The proactive nature of these programs for Liberacewas helpful in facilitating the achievement of growth and development objectives of early childhood (Wasik, Bond, & Hindman, 2002).
The last developments of research and focus have been observed in terms of cognitive theories of development. The socio-emotional development theories are not addressed in detail. The stage theory presented in the as psychodynamic perspective suggests that the series of transformations in the thought process of children is observed throughout various stages of development. It is also noted that the movement from sensory-motor thought to the hypo tactical-hypo deductive logical thoughts. The level of child's development is addressed through various stages of education and learning gained through the…