In recent times, researchers and practitioners are focusing more and more in understanding the role of meta-cognition in reading. This is evidenced by the opinions proposed by researchers like Brown and Palinscar and Gracia and Pearson. As there exists dissimilarity between teachings of distinct expertise and making learners conscious of the inner processes that are carried on in the mind through meta-cognition, this field of research is significant on the whole. Individual readers, more frequently, encounter trouble in gathering together the right tactics to acquire holistic comprehension of text even though they may be able to carry out distinct abilities such as skimming and scanning, tolerating ambiguity, finding meanings from context and drawing inferences. Reciprocal Teaching is one technique that has established to counteract this trouble and internalize the process of comprehension. (Ramaiyah, 1992)
What is Reciprocal teaching?
For training students to develop into active readers, reciprocal teaching is an extensively investigated technique. Reciprocal teaching can be explained as an instructional activity that happens in the mode of a dialogue between teachers and students regarding sections of text. Reciprocal Teaching can be viewed as a study skill and also as an approach because it needs unambiguous teaching of the procedures. (Reciprocal Teaching: Using Data-Based Instruction to Improve the Learning Outcomes of Students Who are Difficult to Teach) Alverman and Phelps in their book titled "Content Reading and Literacy" states that to thrive in contemporary diverse classroom, reciprocal teaching has two main characteristics, namely, teaching and performing of the four comprehension strategies of predicting, question generating, clarifying, and summarizing and a unique variety of cognitive apprenticeship where students steadily learn to take up the function of teacher in serving their friends build meaning from text. (Reading Strategies Scaffolding Students Interactions with Texts: Reciprocal Teaching)
Rosenshine & Meister suggest that reciprocal teaching is embedded with four important instructional practices: Direct teaching of the techniques, as opposed to dependence based exclusively on teacher questioning; student practice of reading techniques with correct reading, not with worksheets or manufactured exercises; Scaffolding of teaching; students as cognitive trainee and peer group co-operation for learning. Reciprocal teaching engages a high level of social communication and teamwork, as students steadily learn to take up the function of teacher in assisting their companions build meaning from text. Essentially, reciprocal teaching is a genuine activity because learning, both inside and outside of school, progresses through cooperative social interaction and the social formation of comprehension. (Reading Strategies Scaffolding Students Interactions with Texts: Reciprocal Teaching)
2 - Why use Reciprocal Teaching strategies?
Reciprocal teaching is used to aid a group attempt between teacher and students as well as among students in the job of fetching meaning to the text. (Reciprocal Teaching: www.ncrel.org) It helps students in keenly conveying meaning to the written word, with or without the presence of teacher. The plans selected offer chances for the students to understand how to check their own learning and thinking. (Reciprocal Teaching: A Reading Strategy) Reciprocal teaching helps to develop reading comprehension by furnishing students with plans for checking conception and to construct meaning; and teacher and students reveal responsibility for getting the reading plans. The teacher slowly transfers the responsibility to the students after primarily assuming main responsibility for teaching these plans. It is supposed that every student must take part in the debate. The teacher offers help when required to encourage student contribution; and the teacher frequently tries to change control of the dialogues over to students. (Hartman, 1997) Reciprocal teaching also assists to give students an objective for reading: to substantiate or challenge their predictions. (Reciprocal Teaching: www.paec.org/curriculum)
Though there are a number of other benefits, the main advantage of this reading plan is that intellectual capacity is expected to rise. Though originally the teacher is responsible for reviewing, inquiring, elucidating and forecasting, students are able to examine and probe the skills presented by a specialist. This lets the teacher to clarify how the skills begin in the reading experience. Both cognitive and meta-cognitive consciousness of reading comprehension is applied by this method. By reciprocal teaching, beginners become conscious of their cognitive resources and their self-regulatory mechanism, which they use in their hard work to understand what they require. What a booklover knows about the job of reading will effect how s/he sets about scheming reading actions. Students follow four basic reading abilities and check their thoughts with those of their colleagues. At the same time, they are paying heed and talking in English in a genuine academic situation. They make use of interactive methods that are linguistically apt like disrupting strategies, question formation, estimation statements, and agreement/disagreement expressions and socially apt like taking turns, decoding body language, and sharing responsibility. During the debate of the text, students' languages requirements are contextualized and elucidated and chances exist for using related vocabulary.
The reader's liberty from the classroom teacher supports independence in the reading procedure. A video of students occupied in reciprocal teaching gives information for the study of reading abilities and group dynamics. Talents are moveable to the reading of texts across the subject. The reciprocal teaching reading group grows into a natural study group. The most helpful method for finding out that whether students are studying the plans or not and whether or not the plans are serving them is to pay attention to students during the conversation. In entire group settings, students may be expected to write out questions and reviews to be verified by the teacher or other students. (Reciprocal Teaching: A Reading Strategy) As per a research, the students revealed no increase in intellectual capacity when they were trained the four reciprocal teaching plans without being enthusiastically absorbed in the process. Intellectual capacity enhanced only when students were vigorously occupied in reciprocal teaching. (Edwards, 1995) Hence the reciprocal teaching model is appealing due to its ease of procedure and efficient in achieving its objectives. Reciprocal teaching is simple to follow, supports talents that are essential for reading lucratively in English, and offers a medium for the addition of communicative actions. This model is made a precious teaching means due to its ability for multilevel and cross-discipline application. (Hewitt, 1995)
3 - Discuss each of the steps involved in Reciprocal Teaching
From what we have learnt, reciprocal teaching is a set of plans, which includes the pre-reading, during reading and post-reading plans into its four constituents. Teachers mold the plans, lead students while they apply and check the students for choice in applying the strategies. (Hewitt, 1995) Summarizing, question generating, clarifying and predicting are the four solid steps of reciprocal teaching. Summarizing gives the chance to recognize and incorporate the most vital information in the text. Text can be summed up over sentences, over paragraphs, and over the passage entirely. The attempts of the students are usually concentrated on the sentence and at the paragraph levels, when they first begin the reciprocal teaching process. Once they gain proficiency they are able to incorporate at the paragraph and passage levels. Question generating strengthens the shortening plan and carries the learner one more step along in the comprehension action. When students make questions, they first make out the kind of data that is important enough to offer the substance for a question. They then create this data in question form and self-examine them to make sure that they can really answer their own question. (Reciprocal Teaching: www.ncrel.org)
Question generating is an accommodating plan to the level that students can be trained and motivated to create questions at many stages. For instance, some school conditions want the students to master supporting detail information; others want the students to be capable of gathering or make use of new information from text. Clarifying is an action that is mainly essential when dealing with students who have a record of comprehension trouble. These students may think that the reason of reading is speaking the words properly; they may not be mainly uneasy that the words, and in fact the passage, are not making sense. When the students are expected to explain, their interest is called to the fact that there may be many reasons why text is complicated to know, like for instance new vocabulary, vague reference words, and strange and perhaps complex ideas. (Reciprocal Teaching: www.ncrel.org)
Students are educated to be attentive to the results of such obstructions to comprehension and to take the requisite steps to bring back meaning, which includes instances such as reread, ask for help. Predicting takes place when students theorize what the author will talk about after that in the text. Students must stimulate the related background knowledge that they already have regarding this topic to do this efficiently. The students have a reason for reading: to verify or refute their theory. Additionally, the chance has been given for the students to relate the new knowledge they will come across in the text with the knowledge they already have. The expecting plan also helps in the use of text structure as students learn that headings, subheadings,…