Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formattingExcerpt from Term Paper:
However, prior to the creation of Israel the numbers were much higher (currently approximately 300,000 Palestinian Christians live in the U.S. alone (2004). Interestingly, the Israeli Army does not differentiate between Arab Christians and Arab Muslims in their occupation activities. In fact, in many areas Palestinian Christians are particularly hit by civilian casualty occurrences (Halter, 2001). In fact, Palestinian Christians identify so strongly with the Palestinian cause that statements like, "The Arab Palestinian Christians are part and parcel of the Arab Palestinian nation. We have the same history, the same culture, the same habits and the same hopes..." coming from the Anglican Bishop of Jerusalem, the Reverend Riad Abu al-Assal, is typical of the community as a whole.
It is for this reason that Palestinian Christians are particularly baffled by the pro-Israeli stance taken by many Western, non-Arab Christians (including, most notably, Jerry Fallwell, Ralph Reed, and Pat Robertson to name a few). They see these groups unquestioning support of Israel (as a representation of the impending fulfillment and expectation of the second coming of Jesus) as strangely lacking in terms of justice and adherence to Christian morals (especially in that they are willing to support the persecution of fellow Christians, Arab or no).
Instead, according to Christian Palestinians, they are allowed freedom from oppression (the right to not be driven from their homes to make room for the Jewish Promised Land). Further, they also believe that through their acceptance of Jesus they have a right to stay in the Holy Land and guard Christian places. Furthermore, many believe that the Jewish rejection of Christ makes the "era of Nations" (and thus, God's promise) void (Halter, 2004).
Indeed, unlike non-Arab Christians, most Palestinian Christians echo the sentiment of one man answering the question, "Is the State of Israel not in fact the fulfillment of God's promise and a necessary step in the second coming of Christ?" Who answered, "...You're kidding, right? You know what they do to our people and our land. If I thought that was part of God's plan, I'd be an atheist in a second (2004)."
Islam is the third of the three religions chronologically, and is also based upon the scriptures of Judaism and Christianity. However, Muslims believe that the true message from God (the same God worshipped by Jews and Christians) was corrupted at some point in the transmission (most specifically that the Torah and the New Testament have been "corrupted" by men. Thus, in response to this problem, Muslims believe that the Prophet Muhammad was dictated the word of God directly, which was then recorded word for word in the Qur'an. Not only do Muslims believe that Muhammad was the last prophet ever to be sent to earth, but that the Qur'an is also the final and complete revelation (Wikipedia, 2005).
Islam shares some key beliefs with the other two faiths, for example, Muslims believe in the total "unity" of God much like in the Jewish faith. Further, Muslims also share the same Prophets with Judaism and Christianity. These include Adam, Noah, Moses, Isaac, Jacob, and Jesus (whom they regard as a prophet, and not divine). Further, they also believe that Jesus was born of a virgin birth just as in Christianity. Even in areas of practice, Islam shares some striking similarities with the other faiths. For example, Muslims do not eat pork (like observant Jews), and they also share many of the same moral rules (no sex outside of marriage, the prohibition of killing and stealing, etc.). However, Islam differs radically from Judaism and Christianity in that it does not allow the drinking of Alcohol, does not observe the Sabbath, and also considers Jewish and Christian believers to be in grave error due to their rejection of Jesus and Muhammad as legitimate prophets.
Much like Christianity and even Judaism, there are several "sects" or groups of Muslims. The most famous is the division between Shia' Muslims and Sunni Muslims (which is based on a battle to determine whom should be the prophet's successor after his death) (Nasr, 2003). However, in Palestine, the dominant form of Islam is Sunni Islam, and is practiced in various degrees of observance throughout Arab communities both inside Israel, as well as in the Occupied Territories.
Of course, most people think of suicide bombings, Hamas and Islamic Jihad (two Islamic political and social groups) when they think of Muslim Palestinians. Although it is true that both groups (in addition to the more secular PLO), enjoy tremendous popularity with the Arab population, many assert this is more of a reaction to the poverty, violence, and economic depression that has plagued them since the beginning of the Israeli occupation than one based on faith alone.
Unlike the nationalistic religious Israelis, or even the outside Zionist Christian camp, the Islamic faith allows for the Holy Land to be shared by different faiths (2003). However, as a condition to this, it is first required that non-Muslim groups do not "oppress" Muslims, (this includes violence and specifically "driving them out of their lands" (2003). However, according to the Qur'an, if the oppression stops, Muslims are ordered to live in peace. Interestingly, it is under the Muslim rule of Jerusalem prior to their routing in the Crusades that all three groups lived in Jerusalem in relative peace (Armstrong, 1997). However, under the traditionally considered "gentle Christians" during the Crusades, religious oppression became the norm for Jews, Muslims and even some Christian sects. (ej9ioej).
Although most mainstream Muslims believe that killing civilians (or even plants and animals) is forbidden in battle, many Muslim groups in Palestine react to the occupation with suicide bombings aimed at civilian casualties. These Muslims seem to justify this by asserting that there "are no civilians" in Israel due to the fact that military service is compulsory. However, Muslims do not share this view, but consider the phenomena to be a reflection of the desperation of the Palestinian people.
Conclusions: Is Peace Possible?
When one considers the tremendous strife in the Middle East today, it is clear that much of it is due to the continued conflict between Israel and the Palestinians. The fact that religion plays a major and unchanging role in the perpetuation of the discord indicates that it is highly doubtful that a peaceful reconciliation can come from the differing faiths when their interests are combined. Thomas Hobbes pointed out that without a kind of "Leviathan" power over individuals life will become "brutish and short..." Further, he asserted that each party will only act in his or her self-interest. Clearly this is the current condition today. Thus, it is imperative to remove the resolution of the conflict from those religiously involved, and placed in the hands of an international body (the UN, the International Court of Justice), to subject it to international law. Without this, it is likely that the problem will only get worse.
Armstrong, Karen. (1997). "Jerusalem: One City, Three Faiths." Ballentine: New York.
Avalon. Yale Law School (Staff). (2003). "The Balfour Declaration." Web site. Retrieved on April 19, 2005, from, http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/mideast/balfour.htm
Halter, Kristel. (2004). "Arab-Christian Suffering in the Holy Land. (Waging Peace)." Washington Report on Middle East Affairs. 1 December.
Nasr, Seyyed Hossein. (2003). "Islam: Religion, History, and Civilization." Harper, San Francisco.
Rich, Tracy. (2005). "The Torah: A Basic Overview." Judaism 101. Web site. Retrieved on April 19, 2005, from, http://www.jewfaq.org/torah.htm
Samuel, F. (1992). "Defenders of the Faith: Inside Ultra-Orthodox Jewry." New York: Schocken Books
Strindgberg, Anders. (2004). "Forgotten Christians." The American Conservative. 24 May. Retrieved from Web sine on April 20, 2005, from, http://www.amconmag.com/2004_05_24/article.html
The Hebrew Bible. (2000). "JPS Hebrew-English Edition." Jewish Publication Society of America, New York.
Wagner, Richard J. (2004). "Christianity for Dummies." For Dummies…[continue]
"Religion Israel L Jones Role Of" (2005, April 20) Retrieved December 10, 2016, from http://www.paperdue.com/essay/religion-israel-l-jones-role-of-64915
"Religion Israel L Jones Role Of" 20 April 2005. Web.10 December. 2016. <http://www.paperdue.com/essay/religion-israel-l-jones-role-of-64915>
"Religion Israel L Jones Role Of", 20 April 2005, Accessed.10 December. 2016, http://www.paperdue.com/essay/religion-israel-l-jones-role-of-64915
What are the recognized threats Recognized threats on a national and international level include, expansion of international terrorism, as a result of universal fundamentalist Arab calls for violence against those who oppress Arabs. Israel is at the center of this conflict as the most regionally active, non-Arab state and as a result of historical actions taken by it to maintain itself and its territories, both recognized and occupied. Short contemporary history of
forgiveness on human health. In its simplest form, the purpose of the study is to evaluate human psychological stress that might constitute a risk factor for heart disease. Further, the study will also evaluate the impact of forgiveness on heart disease. However, such a simple dissertation clearly demands further definition. What, exactly, do we signify when we speak of heart disease? What is properly considered as forgiveness? What impact
Consequently, his observations concerning the business climate in Saudi Arabia with respect to the significance of religion in the Kingdom can be considered authentic. According to Indris, with respect to the perception of performance and contractual obligations among Saudis, "It should be noted that the issue is not with the belief itself but rather with people's misguided interpretations of the belief and Islam teachings. While Islam teaches that ultimate
Jesus' Teachings, Prayer, & Christian Life "He (Jesus) Took the Bread. Giving Thanks Broke it. And gave it to his Disciples, saying, 'This is my Body, which is given to you.'" At Elevation time, during Catholic Mass, the priest establishes a mandate for Christian Living. Historically, at the Last Supper, Christ used bread and wine as a supreme metaphor for the rest of our lives. Jesus was in turmoil. He was
Arab-Americans More than 80% of all Arabs in the U.S. are legal citizens, thus creating an Arab-American cultural foundation consisting of over 3.5 million Americans (AAI, 2009). This single clustered group in reality consists of people from 22 countries like Egypt, Palestine, Morocco, and Lebanon. Today, a third of this population lives in California, New York, or Michigan, with 94% of all Arab-Americans living in urban areas. Only 5% of Arab-Americans
Jewish Monotheism Historians of Judaism actually date the strong Jewish emphasis on monotheism somewhat later than expected within Jewish history. The archaeological discovery of idols and artifacts indicating cultic participation from the time of Israel's presence in Canaan has seemed to indicate a relative laxity in actual practice before the Babylonian captivity, while textual criticism seems agreed that most of the Torah's foregrounded statements of strong monotheism date from textual recensions
The federal workforce, U.S. federal government agency workforces are based on equal opportunity and promotions are on merit principles. (Starks, 2009) Thus we have Asians and Pacific Islanders well-represented in private sector professional positions (8.9%) and in government positions (4.8%) considering they made up 3.7% of the general population." (Starks, 2009) Another issue you are going to face is the gender issues. In the U.S. too it was an issue