Renaissance the Trend in Medicine Term Paper

Download this Term Paper in word format (.doc)

Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formatting

Excerpt from Term Paper:

It is of extreme importance in medicine to know accurately the anatomical changes that take place in a certain disease for diagnosis and treatment. The man who created this science was Morgagni who taught us to think anatomically in our approach of a disease. Morgagni studied at Bologna under Valsalva and Albertini, who are notable persons themselves in the history of medicine. Morgagni did this in the form of letters to an unknown friend who inquired about Morgagni's thoughts and observations in the diseases he had seen. These included affections of the pericardium, diseases of the valves, ulceration, rupture, dilation and hypertrophy of the aorta which were detailedly described clinically and anatomically. Of all his entires, the section on aneurysm of the aorta is one of the best he had written. A good example of his letter was about angina pectoris.

The aorta was considerably dilated at its curvature; and, in places, through its whole tract, the inner surface was unequal and ossified... The delay of blood in the aorta, in the heart, in the pulmonary vessels, and in the vena cave, would occasion the symptoms of which the woman complained during life; namely, the violent uneasiness, the difficulty of breathing, and the numbness of the arm.."

Morgagni, through this entry, showed also the importance of getting a good history from the patient. His anatomical approach in describing some diseases made it possible for his successors and those who read his wroks to fully understand the value of knowing the anatomy of the diseased organ.

This was followed by Thomas Sydenham, who emphasized the need to write a thorough and accurate history of the illness of the patient. He left these words to reiterate the importance of deriving the correct history in the study of medicine.

In writing therefore, such a natural history of diseases, every merely philosophical hypothesis should be set aside, and the manifest and natural phenomena, however minute, should be noted with the utmost exactness...By these steps and helps it was that the father of physic, the great Hippocrates, came to excel, his theory being no more than an exact description or view of nature. He found that nature alone often terminates diseases, and works a cure with a few simple medicines, and often enough with no medicines at all."

Boerhaave is perhaps the best clinical teacher. He was known to be flocked by students from all over Europe. He taught botany and chemistry and became a chair in the department of Physics after teaching these subjects.

Before the eighteenth century ended, practical medicine had made great leaps. Smallpox was prevalent and considered as one of the deadly diseases that persons who had it seldom reach adulthood it was Edward Jenner who invented the vaccine for smallpox. This made great leaps in the field of medicine that as 1800 began, modern medicine was already taking place.

Modern medicine was marked by a more systematic study of the disease, and specialty clinics were organized. Bichat showed that scientific study of medicine is important. He pointed out the pathological changes in disease were not so much in organs as in tissues, and he laid the foundation of modern histology. He wrote "Anatomic Generale" which was published in 1802 and paved the way for a thorough study of disease processes.

Rene Theophile Laennec, a renowned pupil of Corvisart, laid the foundation of modern clinical medicine through the use of one of the basic but important method in physical diagnosis. If Auenbrugger started percussion, Laennec discovered the art of auscultation, making clinical assessment more accurate than from doing by merely using the sense of touch in documenting observations. With the advent of the use of stethoscope, physical diagnosis was made more accurate and progressive, enabling a more thorough examination of visceral organs such as the lungs, heart and the cavities of the human body. His description of tuberculosis is the most helpful in clinical medicine. This method enabled correlation of the signs and symptoms of diseases with their anatomical changes.

This clinico-pathologic method widened enormously the diagnostic powers of the physician. Bright was able to do this when he studied the relation of disease of the kidney to dropsy and albuminous urine to which he discovered the association of various forms of disease of the kidney with anasarca and albuminous urine. Louis and company were able to distinctly differentiate typhus and typhoid fever. Virchow made researches on cellular pathology. Morgagni's method of "anatomical thinking," Skoda in Vienna, Schonlein in Berlin, Graves and Stokes in Dublin, Marshall Hall, C.J.B. Williams and many others contributed in making a new clinical medicine.

The use of the microscope in clinical work made it possible to obtain an actual process of the disease. Valuable studies were made on the action of drugs and cardiac pathology by Traube, Cohnheim and others.

It was Louis Pasteur who was able to study the process of fermentation and diseases through the use of microscope. This device that was invented by Anton van Leeuwenhoek made it possible for Pasteur to correlate fermentation with disease process, making him understand that pus in an infected wound came from organisms in the air, and not through spontaneous generation. This study gave him successes in the field of medicine which started when he was asked to study the disease of silk worm that devastated the industry during that time. John Lister made use of Pasteur's work to explain the occurrence of sepsis in patients when their open wound becomes infected, thus, causing blood poisoning.

Many more followed with their discovery of etiologic agents using the microscope: Koch with tuberculosis bacilli, Laveran with malaria, Evans with trypanosomes and many others.

Nineteenth century medicine revealed the discovery made by Claude Bernard of the secretions made by the body's internal organs through his study of the glycogenic functions of the liver. Addison, on the other hand, was able to recognize a constellation of symptoms with the disease of the suprarenal glands.

Advances in chemistry made it possible to discover electricity. This advancement in science paves the way for revolutionizing the field of medicine. This enabled scientists to observe minute chemical changes happening in our body. The theme of modern medicine in the twentieth century is preventive medicine. All the discoveries made the previous century made physicians, and scientists realize that diseases have causes and are preventable. Pathogens were being discovered and their path physiology becameme easier to decipher. Sanitation was given importance, and educating the people to make them more aware of the cleanliness needed for disease prevention was being advocated.

Science enabled medicine to make its advances, starting from the pre-medieval time up to the present. Various discoveries made in the field of science made it possible for our scientists, physicians and truth-seekers to understand the anatomy of the body, its function and mechanism, and how various diseases can inflict harm down to the molecular level of our existence. Science and medicine are partners, and this goes down in history and may be one of the truths that cannot be refuted by any scientific mind.


1. Evolution of Medicine.Online. Available from Internet, http:://, Accessed May 12, 2007.

History of Anatomy. Online. Available from Internet, Accessed May 12, 3007

Mayeaux, E.J. Jr. 1989. A History of Western Medicine and Surgery. Online. Available from Internet,, Accessed May 12, 2007

Medieval Medicine. Online. Available from Internet, Accessed May 12, 3007

Osler, William. 2006. The Evolution of Modern Medicine: A Series of Lectures Delivered at Yale University on the Silliman Foundation in April, 1917. Online. Available from Internet, http:://, Accessed May 12, 2007.

E.J. Mayeaux. 1989. A History of Western Medicine and Surgery. Online article. Available from Internet, Accessed May 12, 2007

William Osler. 2006. The Evolution of Modern Medicine: A Series of Lectures Delivered at Yale University on the Silliman Foundation in April, 1917. Online. Available from Internet, http:://, Accessed May 12, 2007.

Medieval Medicine. Online. Available from Internet, Accessed May 12, 3007

History of Anatomy. Online. Available from Internet, Accessed May 12, 3007

Osler, William. 2006. The Evolution of Modern Medicine: A Series of Lectures Delivered at Yale University on the Silliman Foundation in April, 1917. Online. Available from Internet, http:://, Accessed May 12, 2007

Evolution of Medicine.Online. Available from Internet http::// theEvolutionofmodernmedicine/legalese.html, Accessed May 12, 2007.[continue]

Cite This Term Paper:

"Renaissance The Trend In Medicine" (2007, May 16) Retrieved October 28, 2016, from

"Renaissance The Trend In Medicine" 16 May 2007. Web.28 October. 2016. <>

"Renaissance The Trend In Medicine", 16 May 2007, Accessed.28 October. 2016,

Other Documents Pertaining To This Topic

  • Living in the Middle Ages What New

    living in the Middle Ages. What new things are available for you to experience? The prelude to modernism The history that establishes origin and evolution of the modern society has its basis from the ancient time. Initially, the world and society featured various practices that today we may perceive as being barbaric and outdated. However, it is essential to acknowledge that it is through the various ages of revolution that the

  • New Reference Is Not Required

    It also set up a conflict between labour and capital, a variation of the old conflict between peasants and nobility. Because it was based on a competitive "free" market, capitalism inherently sought labour-saving and time-saving devices by which it might increase efficiency and productivity. In other words, manufacturing and production processes were sped up through specialisation (division), automation, mechanisation, routinisation, and other alienating forms of production in which the

  • Thomas Jefferson s Legacy His Innovations

    Though Jefferson played a major role in the development of the United States he preferred to be remembered for the things he gave the people and not the things the people gave to him. His final request was that his tombstone read: HERE WAS BURIED THOMAS JEFFERSON, AUTHOR of the DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE, of the STATUTE of VIRGINIA for RELIGIOUS FREEDOM, and FATHER of the UNIVERSITY of VIRGINIA. The Townsend Acts

  • Interpersonal Skill of Mesopotamia the

    Interpersonal Skill of Islamic Golden Age A prime instance of Islamic leadership skills includes their medical services. The hospital and its peer review, were both innovations that enabled the Islamic culture to lead the West (and East) in to a better world. Arab philosophers also introduced the ancient teachings from India and China to the West. It also believed by some historians that Islamic legal tradition has laid the groundwork for

  • Dying on Death and Dying

    While various types of medical/religious practice had long attempted to prolong life, the emphasis of these efforts beginning during this period was placed on forestalling death. Views of Death in the Modern Era The trends that began in the Renaissance and Enlightenment periods continued into the modern era, and though the increased rationalism and emphasis on the scientific method and imperial fact served society well in many ways, this has not

  • Ben Jonson Intertextualities The Influence

    " James a.S. McPeek further blames Jonson for this corruption: "No one can read this dainty song to Celia without feeling that Jonson is indecorous in putting it in the mouth of such a thoroughgoing scoundrel as Volpone." Shelburne asserts that the usual view of Jonson's use of the Catullan poem is distorted by an insufficient understanding of Catullus' carmina, which comes from critics' willingness to adhere to a conventional -- yet incorrect

  • Theories Tactics Methods and Techniques

    EDSE 600: History and Philosophy of Education / / 3.0 credits The class entitled, History and Philosophy of Education, focused on the origin of education and the "philosophical influences of modern educational theory and practice. Study of: philosophical developments in the Renaissance, Reformation, and revolutionary periods; social, cultural and ideological forces which have shaped educational policies in the United States; current debates on meeting the wide range of educational and social-emotional

Read Full Term Paper
Copyright 2016 . All Rights Reserved