On the other hand, competition brings about order, whereby the consequences of a particular behavior determine its selection and the most successful becomes the leader of the group (Dunne, 2007, p.49).
5. What does it mean to say that a theory is useful? How should one approach the question of determining the relevance and value of a theory (theory-testing), according to Waltz?
Waltz emphasizes that a useful theory must have the capacity to be disproved. According to Waltz, a theory must be based on observable facts. The best theory must be close to reality and must be proved through measurements. Waltz believed that measurements were to be tested and predicted (Dunne, 2007, p.12). Waltz advances that the relevance and value of a theory is determined by the distinction between the measurement and the predictions. This implies that, if the distinction between the prediction and the measurement are too far apart, then it proves that the theory is falsified. Waltz advices that this would necessitate improvements on the theory to ensure that the predictions of measurements are within the boundaries of the applicable paradigm (Keohane, 2001, p.261).
6. Discuss how these five concepts inter-relate within realist theory: rationality, power, prudence, security, pessimism.
The relationship among the five concepts has been presented by Waltz: players under a domestic polity do not have reason to fear dependence on specialization. However, most starts get worried because of the anarchic structure, which plunders states into a vulnerable condition of insecurity (Keohane, 2001, p.81). This compels nations to become rational and reduce their dependency level. According to Waltz, it is such a simple feeling that explains the pessimistic thrust in order for them to expand their power and control. Countries that rely on other nations for crucial economic supplier are afraid of blackmail or cutoff during a war or crisis. Consequently, nations are likely to expand their political control in supplying resources, which might foster conflicts. Therefore, interdependence may lead to great rationality, insecurity and power (Dunne, 2007, p.47).
7. Define the following three terms and explain their significance: auxiliary hypothesis, reductionism, anarchy.
Modus Tollens is the reasoning patterns based on deductive validity. The auxiliary test hypothesis rarely comes in isolation. We often expect certain hypothetical observations to be tested in conjunction with a variety of background assumptions. Auxiliary hypotheses are defined as the aforementioned background assumptions. Auxiliary hypotheses must be taken into consideration in the reasoning method of refutation and conjecture (Keohane, 2001, p.161). Reductionism refers to the process of stratifying individuals into hierarchical ranks based on socio-economic teams. Reductionism argues that conflicts of sexuality, gender, and sex are melted into class inequality. This means that they arise between individuals who control and own means of manufacturing, service, exchange, communication and discipline vs. those who do not. Anarchy is viewed as auxiliary and separate to the universalization of class struggle (Dunne, 2007, p.111).
8. Why do neorealist such as Waltz insist that only a structural argument can explain the core dynamics of international relations? How does systemic analysis shape their theory?
Neorealists have identified three areas forming the basis of classifying critical facets of classical realism. To begin with, they have focused on the condition of humans of conflict and insecurity that requires great attention. The neorealists have identified bodies of political wisdom and knowledge that address human insecurity problems because the human condition is a permanent characteristic of human life (Dunne, 2007, p.51). First, Waltz has developed answers to the failure of international liberation adequately accounting for enhanced global relations that precipitated major world wars. Waltz has focused on structure that forms the international systems rather than nature of human beings. He has described structure as being founded on a hierarchy of state actors that perform essential functions for the purpose of survival. Waltz is of the belief that the behavior exhibited by nations in the global system is not rooted on the nature of humans. He argues that it results from nations that find themselves in a condition of anarchy whereby they are forced to adopt necessary measures to ensure they survive (Keohane, 2001, p.81).
Dunne, T. (2007). International relations theories:…