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scholars understand the quality and prospects of "democracy" in China?
Many people have different views concerning the exact nature of democracy. Scholars believe that democracy entails the act of the society choosing its own leaders to implement decisions, held responsible through elections, for the public. Others emphasize that democracy entails the rule by the people, in which the will of the people lies with the supernatural being. Nevertheless, while democracy may have varied meanings depending on every individual's definition, it is with certainty that if democracy shall prevail, ideas must flow, both from the majority and the minority. In absence of free flow of ideas, there will be absence of democratic ideal of governance by people if people are unaware of the occurrences. In the republic of China, some people knew this.
China reforms are developing very fast. Her exceptional political growth model is not only divergent from the traditional Soviet Union Socialist form, but also deviates from the Western liberal autonomous style. The Chinese political structure challenges the classic liberal democratic theory in Western literature and doubts the aspect of democracy by asking questions like:
Is democracy a general value for all humanity? Does a non-liberal form of democracy actually survive? These concerns also take in the most severe arguments about Chinese democratic reform within China since its foundation in 1949. This political dialogue in China focuses in questions like: What is the connection between democracy and social modernization? Is western-style democracy applicable in China? Does china have a model of democracy? Is democracy and opportunity or a challenge for the Chinese? Lastly, how do scholars understand the quality and prospects of "democracy" in China?
Chinese leaders are reluctant on the political system used in China and pay less attention on aspects of democracy like the western countries. The western countries are highly endorsing on local elections, judicial independence, and oversight of Chinese Communist Party officials. It is unclear how far the Chinese liberalization will eventually go and how the Chinese politics will resemble after attaining democracy. As scholars assert, China conducts elections in choosing her leaders, both in the different stages of People's Congresses up to the NPC and in village-level direct elections. Above that, there are other more significant things besides elections. This essay discusses the quality and prospects of "democracy" in China.
Quality and Prospects of Democracy in China
China is in the verge of establishing a democratic system and ending up the autocratic governance. For the past 100 years, democratic movement in China has undergone through numerous reform with the intention of forming a quality system of governance that will include every citizen without any biasness. In other words, China governance has various loopholes that require immediate amendments in order for the citizens to enjoy democracy. One of the Chinese democratic pioneers, Dr. Sun Yat-Sen described democracy as an unavoidable stage in the growth of civilization. He addressed the Chinese people and affirmed to them that democratic trend us enormous and mighty. He said that individuals play a bigger role in growth and development of democracy, and they determine its success. In other words, people have power to establish and kill democracy.
As a scholar, Dr. Sun Yat-Sen established the Nationalist Party (or Kuomintang), and played a significant role in advocating for democratic revolution in Chinese History. The revolution was very powerful that overthrew the Qing Dynasty and the final Chinese emperor, founding the original Republic of China (ROC). However, despite Suns' endeavors nurture the democratic revolution, ROC China dominated, whereby China experienced temporal restoration of the overthrown monarch, followed by a de facto tyrannical rule by Sun's Nationalist successors. They finally lacked support from the Chinese Citizens and instead thrown away from the mainland by the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). Undeniably, the main reason why the CCP could triumphal over the Kuomintang during the final Civil war was for democratic reasons.
The foundation of the CCP accentuated on the need for democracy, especially Chen Duxiu, who was a strong leader in the democratic movements discussed in the contemporary Chinese history. Chairman Mao Zedong also advocated for democratic governance in China. He is a scholar who systematically illustrated the guiding policies that would develop democratic governance in China. He chaired the CCP, which founded the People's Republic of China (PRC) in 1949. Formation of this democratic movement was a significant milestone in the Chinese History on democracy. In essence, these democratic activists had different version in the way they understood the prospects of democracy. They affirmed that it is only through democracy that governments can survive removal from authority without any concrete reasons since democracy could generate national goal of tremendous transformation.
This is true because after the 1949, the CPP engaged in great exploration with the intention of advocating for democracy in China. This attempt contributed in generating numerous outstanding achievements, for instance, eradicating feudalistic hierarchy and freedom, equating gender differences, and ensuring poor employees and farmers are engaged in national administration. Even though, scholars and other activists may hugely contribute to ensuring that the country runs through democratic governance, there are few challenges that act as drawbacks to impede democracy. China suffered after the 1949 whereby, her democracy reverted into a rigorously degraded circumstance.
The Great Proletariat Cultural Revolution, headed by Mao Zedong destroyed the entire democratic structure and legal development and ended in complete autarchy. The democratic structure required reformation and amendment of the guiding principles, and Deng Xiaoping, who initiated a new epoch in Chinese democracy, carried out this role. China began experiencing democratic reforms in 1978 and this facilitated growth and development of Chinese Economy at a very high rat, and this was like a miracle in the contemporary world economic history. This is because very few countries were capable of tolerating the challenges associated with democratic revolution. From 1978 to 2008, Chinese GDP grew at a very high rate. Statistics indicate that during the 30 years period GDP elevated from 364.5billion yuan (approximately 50.1 billion USD at 2010 exchange rate) to 30.067 trillion yuan (about 4.295 trillion USD).
In addition, the mean yearly growth rate surpassed 9% and the GDP per capita rose from 381 yuan (about 54.3 USD) to 22,600 yuan (approximately 3,228.57 USD. This huge growth made the nations comprehensive strength to increase and take a third position in the global world. According to the western scholars, they believed that the transformation of China's democracy and building up of policies only attained huge accomplishment concerning economic modernization without any essential development in political democratization. Some scholars furthered their research and claimed the reason for the Success of Chinese economic modernization was that China lacked any accompanying democratic reforms. Soviet Union exemplifies the reason for the success of modernization, whereby the speed at which democratization reforms used surpassed the speed of economic modernization.
These evaluative observations overlooked the reality that Chinese Reform and implementation was dealing with a large number of people, nearly the entire nation. If there are any changes that are unusual to such a large population, they could result to exceptional sufferings to hundreds of millions, as well as negatively influence economies and trade associates both regionally and globally. Chinese modernization is an incorporated multi-level social change process, which includes both the huge economic growth and great political and cultural progress. The political momentum to economic success was essentially more imperative in China's transformation than in any other western countries.
Scholars who have a deep understanding of the Chinese social and historic traditions clearly asserted, "Politics is the commander, the soul, and the bloodline of all economic tasks." If China lacked a political reform structure, China's modernization would have failed. This is a fact that is evident from the historical and record -- setting advancement made in the course of Chinese reform and opening up-era. China's reform and opening -- up procedure was originated from imperative political reform three decades ago.
In East Asia, particular, China, popular support for democracy relies on whether the citizenry experience that political institutions produce an acceptable quantity of democracy and provide a satisfactory level of quality governance. Similarly, the seeming quality of democracy is also created by what citizens expect out of and demand from their political leaders. The development of democratic legitimacy is also formed by some short-term issues, such as economic performance, as well as by some long-term factors, such as values Change. It is significant to acknowledge that citizens in East Asian democracies are capable of distinguishing between the political and economic dimensions of government performance.
This means a high number of citizens accept the valued of democracy for the political goods it provides even when its economic performance is thought to be slothful. This is a significant issue because most of the developing democracies are likely reluctant to repeat their history on miraculous growth.
Over the long-term, the country overall capability in the provision of a steady and strong economic environment is sternly affected by the forces of globalization. For Chinese citizens,…[continue]
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