They predict age and gender variations relate to bullying concerns. Of the 25 cartoons implemented in the study, two depict characters with different shades of skin color where skin color appeared to be an issue. One cartoon relating to sexual orientation was not used in several countries. Smith et al. report Olweus to assert bullying to be characterized by the following three criteria:
1. It is aggressive behavior or intentional "harmdoing"
2. which carried out repeatedly and over time
3. In an interpersonal relationship characterized by an imbalance of power. (Smith et al., 2002, p. 1120)
In their study, Smith et al. (2002), participating researchers in the 14 countries to completed the following
1. Listed and selected bullying terms as well as social exclusion in the applicable language.
2. Used fundamental focus groups with participating children to confirm usage and extensive comprehensive of terms.
3. Using cartoons, sorted tasks to describe ways terms relating to bullying are used.
Figure 1 depicts four samples of the 25 cartoons Smith et al. (2002) used in their study.
Figure 1: Four Sample Study Cartoons (Smith et al., 2002, 1123).
In Figure 1, cartoons 3 and 10 depict cartoons from the boy's set. Numbers 14 and 21 reflect cartoons from the girl's set.
Findings they retrieved from their study, Smith et al. (2002) assert, depict a" historical snapshot." They conclude that no significant gender differences exist in the participants' perceptions of the types of social situations the cartoon sets depicted. This suggests that even though boys and girls may differ in the varieties of bullying they implement or acquire at a particular age, they do, albeit, allocate common perceptions as to what bullying actually means.
Even though considerable overlap exists in results, boys, according to the study by Smith et al. (2002) may directly experience more physical bullying, while girls on the other hand, may experience less direct bullying. Both boys and girls likely to observe significant bullying that involves both same-sex and opposite-sex children.
Smith et al. (2002) also report that their study results indicate that 8-year-olds possessed a less discriminating perception than the 14-year-olds. The English term "bullying," which participating school children understood, does not completely match the definitional concept many researchers ascribe to the term; the meaning researchers in the scientific community also generally accept. This, according to Smith et al., may be attributed to the fact that in England during the late 1990s, the term "bullying," did not yet wholly include social exclusion.
Historically,-word meanings frequently change. The "core concept of the term bully has changed dramatically over several centuries. More subtle changes have taken place in the past 5 years with the incorporation of more indirect and relational forms of bullying into current definitions" (Smith et al., 2002). Additionally, the term "bullying" currently commonly arises in the adult workplace, where in the past it was exclusively confined to the school context. Ultimately, Smith et al. purport, their findings confirmed their expectations; confirming that concerning the greater discrimination of criteria at 14 years than 8 years, and the lack of gender the students' differences in understanding and applications of bullying terms; despite differences in gender and variations in bullying behaviors, over time and in different countries may be of significant generalizability.
Olweus Bullying Prevention Program (BPP)
The Olweus' Bullying Prevention Program (2010) entails four basic strategies to deal with and deter bullying in the classroom. The four strategies include:
1. Developing a discipline program,
2. informing parents of behavior,
3. teaching prosocial values and
4. training school staff members (Olweus' Bullying Prevention Program, 2010, Abstract section, ¶ 8).
Beran, Tutty, and Steinrath (2004) note that anti-violence prevention programs like the Olweus' Bullying Prevention Program that do more than merely teach children specific skills are rare. Programs needed to focus "on changing the school system's response by including staff and parents in examining policies and procedures are relatively rare, yet more likely to achieve lasting change" (Beran, Tutty, & Steinrath, Abstract section, ¶ 8). The Olweus program comprises a universal intervention program effectively aims not only to reduce but to also prevent bullying incidents in school.
The Olweus program targets bullying in elementary, middle and junior high schools throughout the country. The article, "Olweus Bullying Prevention Program (BPP)" (2010), explains that "all students within a school participate in most aspects of the program. Additional individual interventions are targeted at students who are identified as bullies or victims of bullying" (Olweus Bullying Prevention…, 2010, ¶ 2). Facilitators in this program implement a number of key components of this program at each school and at each level. These components include:
Giving each student an anonymous questionnaire to access the occurrence and nature of bullying at each school. Facilitators schedule a school conference day to discuss bullying at each school and the plan for intervention. A Bullying Prevention Coordinating Committee is then formed to coordinate each aspect of the school's program. Supervision of students increases at "hot spots" where bullying frequently occurs.
To further prevent bullying, school personnel establishes class rules and subsequently enforces them. Regularly scheduled meetings are held in each classroom with relevant discussions to ensure students know the rules regarding bullying.
Interventions are implemented for those students recognized/identified as bullies. The victims of the bullies also participate in discussions with parents, teachers, school counselors and school- based mental health professionals regarding bullying incidents (Olweus Bullying Prevention…, 2010).
Figure 2 depicts a number of areas in which the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program has demonstrated successful results.
Figure 2: Proven Results from Olweus BPP (adapted from Olweus Bullying…, 2010, ¶ 6-9).
Bully No More
Bully No More School Prevention Program comprises an entertaining educational assembly program based on Dr. Olweus' program. The article, "Bully no more assemblies," (2006) explains that the program's design gives "students a memorable and instructive assembly program aimed to help recognize, cope with and prevent 'Bullying' by using comedy and magic to emphasize the theme" (p. 1). Dave Rojahn, magician, comedian and sociologist with a degree of Sociology for Lebanon Valley College and more than 20 years experience as a professional entertainer hosts the assembly sessions.
In 2006, the Bully No More Program, created in 2001, had been presented in over 75 schools throughout the United States. "It became an approved presentation by the School District of Palm Beach County, Florida's Prevention Center / Safe School Center" (Bully no more, 2006, p. 1). In addition to presenting this program to more than 175,000 children, Rojahn appeared on cable television programs like Nickelodeon and Fox-n TV. He also presented the program to individuals vacationing on Carnival Cruise Lines. Figure 3 depicts the four rules of the Bully No More school-based program.
Figure 3: Four Rules of Bullying Bully No More (adapted from Bully no more, 2006, p. 1).
The Bully No More presentation, designed for children in grades K-8, lasts approximately 35 minutes. The program may be easily presented at various locations in the school, for example, the gymnasium floor, the stage of an auditorium, or even a reading room in the library. The researcher considers this particular, dramatically different bullying program to portray one more way anti-bullying school prevention programs may be implemented. Even though the Bully No More Program consists of only a onetime presentation, the use of humor effectively presents a memorable message for students. This type of program, albeit, would not likely be as effective in addressing bullying as other longer-termed programs, as it does implement preventative, nor outline follow-up measures as the other three programs do.
No Bullying School Program
The No Bully® Program, reportedly designed to make schools and classrooms a place where students feel that fellow students accept and included them in school activities, for who they are personally. This accomplishment, in turn, helps students grow up as part of a world where adults are accepted and valued for the person they are. The article, "Anti-Bullying programs for schools," (2009) explains the goal for this program to be "for all students to develop the social and emotional intelligence that will give them greater success in their peer relationships, their academic performance and in their adult lives" (¶ 2). This particular program promotes powerful training and workshops for teachers and students to help nurture this particular goal.
The No Bully Program defines bullying as a form of repeated aggression from one or more students toward another student. The article, "What is bullying?"(2009), purports that bullying "tends to occur in places from which escape is difficult, including [school,] the workplace, prisons and in the family between siblings" (¶ 1). This prevention program focuses on enhancing students understanding regarding bullying. According to the No Bully Program, bullying at school typically occurs in one or more of the following four different forms:
Physical bullying: Student or Peer uses physical force to hurt another student by hitting, holding down, kicking, pinching, pushing, shoving, and/or pinching them. Physical bullying may also include breaking or taking another student's property or belongings. (What is bullying, 2009, ¶ 2).