Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formattingExcerpt from Research Paper:
Professional School Counseling
Until recently school counseling was more of a byword because most believed that the position could be filled by any qualified teacher, and, generally, it was. Teachers would get a master's degree in guidance or vocational counseling, and be considered able to work as a school counselor. The reason for this was that counselors in schools were not seen as a person who needed to deal with the emotional issues of the students (they had parents, pastors or an outside counseling specialist for that), a school counselor was supposed to act only as a guidance vehicle. This meant that the counselor had a broad knowledge of colleges, admission criteria, and assessments that would help the student achieve a better overall placement upon leaving high school. But the utility of the school counselor position is much greater than that.
Looking at the common usage of the word counseling it is possible to determine where this original philosophy, that has persisted in many circles, is wrong. A counselor, in general, is a member of a helping profession that looks to the emotional, spiritual and mental health needs of consumers. Even though the consumer in this case is a student in a high school or elementary school, the basic mission does not change. Of course, like all other counseling types, there are specific duties that fall under a title, but that does not mean that a person does not perform the basic duties that all in the counseling profession share. School counselors are also tasked with college, vocational and career guidance, as well as guidance through the high school halls of academia, so they must be versed in these functions as well. This research paper looks at the school counseling from a historic, biblical and utilitarian viewpoint. Basically, what is the worth of the profession, are school counselors still needed, and what is the biblical view of this form of counseling.
Brief History and Development
As mentioned above, school counseling began as career and vocational guidance that was offered by teachers who had a knack for the dealing with this obligation. The first person who looked at the practice as a profession in the United States and began developing theories of practice was Frank Parsons (O'Brien, 2001). Mr. Parsons was the first to establish a guideline that could be followed by school counselors, and a professional organization to support them. He legitimized the profession by helping others realize the difficulty of transitioning from school to the occupational world, and he performed research, along with others interested in the field, to support his suppositions (O'Brien, 2001).
Parsons may have legitimized the practice, but there was still a large collection of small town and rural school districts that could not afford a separate individual to counsel the students. This began to change in the 1920's when more money began to filter into the educational system, and far-flung school districts began to coalesce. School districts could not afford to pay for a separate position, and the counselor began to look more at emotional issues rather than just guidance.
Since that time the profession has seen it ups and downs, mainly due to either money issues in the nations school systems or neglect from the time's present federal administration. The 1930's were difficult because of the depression, but the profession regained strength in the 1940's and 1950's because of testing for potential soldiers. The 1980's and early 1990's saw a decline in all educational funding and this particularly affected school counseling departments. However, there has been a push in the past two decades to bring the profession back to foundational principles. This means that students, parents and administrators are beginning to see the school counseling profession as integral to student development.
Importance to Counseling
Counseling has so many divisions because there are a lot of people that need good counsel, and they cannot often get it from someone who considers themselves a jack-of-all trades counselor. The utility of the school counselor is that he or she will be with a young person to help them through the difficulties of the primary and secondary school environments, but also help them determine what path they are on. Guidance cannot be underestimated, but the chaos of the middle school and high school years may hold the show the greatest importance of the school counselor.
Guidance or career counseling is an integral part of the school counselor's role that is probably the most fundamental. Since the days of Frank Parsons, it has been seen by most as the most important function of the school counselor (O'Brien, 2001). When a young person enters their educational track at the age of five or six, they are not thinking seriously about what they will become years later in the occupational world. The young person may have some dreams of continuing in their father's or mother's footsteps, but even these are fleeting thoughts because someone that young probably does not know exactly what their parent does. However, as the child develops, they start to see occupations through field trips and days when parents discuss their occupations in the classroom. The individual is starting to understand some of what they may want to do. This process continues through the middle school years when a child can better grasp abstract concepts, and is seeing what they have aptitudes in based on how they react to certain classes. More importantly, the individual is beginning to form distinct likes and dislikes. As the student goes through their final few years in high school, they will try one or more job types, and the counselor can also help them with certain instruments which will better define their distinctive gifts.
Although, the most important function of the school counselor may have previously been seen as helping students choose next year's classes, what college they are going to, and their eventual career, certain national events have dramatically changed the full scope of school counseling. Wigfield, Lutz and Wagner (2005) conducted a study on the developmental growth of adolescents and what that meant for school counselors. One of the findings is that children are more uncertain than they used to be, but that they are also more likely to lash out. This can be seen in the rash of secondary school shootings that have recently plagued the United States, including the most recent in Chardon, Ohio. A troubled young man walked into a school cafeteria before school began shooting five people and killing three. Although details of his reasoning have not surfaced, he did admit to randomly choosing his victims. The reason that this is important for school counselors is that they are called in more today for emotional support and advocacy than they ever have been before. Many of the school shooters have identified bullying as being a primary cause of their rampage, and some have just been very troubled loners.
Another issue that schools are having to deal with is suicides caused by bullying. This has become more prominent because of the prevalence of internet bullying that is taking place. It is an easier method to target other students, and it can involve a much larger group. School counselors cannot take the full responsibility of this on their shoulders, but they are the first line of defense for these kids. Once these students enter the adult world, they will be served much better if they had a therapeutic relationship with their school counselor.
School counseling themes can be broken down into the same two major divisions that were discussed in the previous section: guidance and mental health. Counselors as a whole work with people to help them discover the root of their issues, and that is exactly how school counselors work with students. Whether the issue is one of guidance or mental health, the counselor acts as a helper for the student rather than a teacher. The roles are distinct.
A primary theme is that of advocacy. Many students do not come from strong families and they have no one to help them with issues that may arise for them. An advocate is someone who helps the subject find the resources they need. Whether the current role is one of guidance or emotional support, the school counselor needs to advocate for the student in all cases. Sometimes this may also mean that they have to betray the students trust by going to a higher authority, but the counselor has to be the advocate for the child that they cannot be for themselves.
School counseling has also become a place where grief counseling takes place. The life of a teenager is difficult and they will have many times when they need someone to discuss endings, and how to deal with that. From breakups to death, the school counselor needs to be grounded in the concept of grief.
Identity, Function and Ethics
The identity of a school counselor is primarily wrapped in their position as the…[continue]
"School Counseling Professional School Counseling Until Recently" (2012, March 06) Retrieved October 23, 2016, from http://www.paperdue.com/essay/school-counseling-professional-78397
"School Counseling Professional School Counseling Until Recently" 06 March 2012. Web.23 October. 2016. <http://www.paperdue.com/essay/school-counseling-professional-78397>
"School Counseling Professional School Counseling Until Recently", 06 March 2012, Accessed.23 October. 2016, http://www.paperdue.com/essay/school-counseling-professional-78397
School Culture on School Safety Many studies have been done on safety in schools. Likewise, many studies have been done on the culture of various schools. Unfortunately, there has not been significant research on a link between the two. This is not to say that these kinds of studies have not been done, but rather that there has not been enough of them. Many of the studies that have been
School Response to Student Suicide: Postvention The emotional impact on family and friends following an adolescent suicide - and the school's response to a suicide - has not been the subject of the same level of intense research as have: a) the causes of suicides; and b) programs to prevent suicides. However, there is now an emerging body of solid research on what protocol a school can put into place, to
The author makes it quite clear what he thinks the church should accomplish in the lives of its members and in the community. He writes, "Churches should be supportive, extended family for everyone who wishes this, including those who live alone and those who are married or live in other committed relationships" (Clinebell 277). It is refreshing that he includes everyone, regardless of their marital arrangements, which shows he is
Moseley, chair of the Coalition advisory board and president and CEO of the Academy for Educational Development. "It is not a luxury that can be addressed at some point in the future, but rather it provides people with the tools to survive and improve their lives" (Basic Education Coalition 2004). There is no one magical, quick fix solution to Bermuda's dropout problem. The problem is complex and requires a
PSYCHOSOCIAL ISSUES AFFECTING African-American STUDENTS PSYCHOSOCIAL ISSUES AFFECTING African-American STUDENTS "They never want to hear what I have to say…it doesn't matter who started a fight, or what a teacher said to you that made you mad. You might have something heavy going on at home but no one asks. They're not interested. They just want you out of the school." 17-year-old 11th grade African-American female student, NYC (Sullivan, 2007, p. iii). In New York City, one of
Internet: Privacy for High School Students An Analysis of Privacy Issues and High School Students in the United States Today In the Age of Information, the issue of invasion of privacy continues to dominate the headlines. More and more people, it seems, are becoming victims of identity theft, one of the major forms of privacy invasion, and personal information on just about everyone in the world is available at the click of
The results showed that 37% of those responding have had "some type of frequent involvement in bullying"; the data showed that 17.5% of those thirty-seven percent of the student population were victims, 11.7% were bullies, and 8.4% were both bullies and victims (bully/victim). Interestingly, and going back to the Handbook of Educational Psychology's view of bullying as acting out ethnocentrism, "minority youth were significantly more likely to be categorized as