Education being the act or process of imparting or acquiring knowledge, development of the art of reasoning and judgment to the environment, and widely the preparation of a person or others intellectually to live peacefully with each other. This process helps in the acquisition of particular knowledge or skills in a particular profession such as engineering, social sciences and doctors.
Education being an interactive affair calls for people's interaction. The society having banked so much on the skills from their members they then sort to improve this interaction. The society has thus resorted in researches that would see the betterment of the current educational system (Kerfoot, 2008).
School improvement then comes in to improve a school; there should be two forces that should be working in harmony. This force comes from the learners themselves and those who impart knowledge to them. Emphasis are then put on the type of curriculum that is in place and the how the teachers are recruited and their training system at large.( Hopkins, 1994)
For this to happen then the society has to put a lot of emphasis on school improvement ideas. These ideas include curriculum review, teacher recruitment and training systems among others. This research will have a focus on curriculum change or review on education and how it improves schools.
Curriculum review is always done in a cycle that always differs from institutions or countries to countries. There are those that take five years some six years. This cycle is the one that gives the outline of how the process will take place till completion. If we focus on a five-year cycle, we find that in the first year the will be a concern on the researches and reviewing which enables an institution ( Ajegbo, 1998)
To compare with earlier works or curricula. In the second year the researcher is concerned whether the appropriate channels and materials have been put in place for the achievement of the desired outcome. The third year there is a concern on implementation of the whole process to know how well it can work in the class system. The fourth year is about monitoring and adjusting on the areas that have a stalemate, here they look at how well the system is working and which parts they can improve on followed by the fifth year where assessments of the improvements that were done to be working. The main concern is whether the new policy put in place is working properly and they answer questions of whether the students are learning.
Curriculum review always sees the improvements in education by incorporating subjects that helps in conforming with the current labour market this in turn curbs the problem of unemployment that has diversely affected developing countries. This also encourages learner to choose from careers that are not over crowded. ( Ajegbo, 1998 )
The curriculum should also improve on the time table to allow for smooth learning in schools. This timetable is always so important as some syllabus are rendered obsolete while others are put to more considerations. This might be in the reduction of subjects to ease work load on the learners and also the teachers to enable them concentrate on fewer ones for a better result. Some subjects which are so technical are also thrown away or taken to higher levels. Another concern here is the general structure of learning; this will dictate leadership patterns in the schools, this change in curriculum has vast effects on the improvements of schools. This is because it puts checks and balances in the education system by ensuring that the staff employed are competent and are paid accordingly under and designated structure that enable them manage schools accordingly. This has enabled schools to employ staff that is qualified for this job and this has enabled learners to acquire quality education in schools. ( Biggs, 2002)
A good curriculum also helps in establishing a proper assessment and feedback process that helps in improving the schools. This it does by ensuring there is proper communication channel between learners and their teachers. This easen information flow and out flow of information making learning more interactive. This interactive nature of learning on the other hand enables production of qualified people.
Curriculum review has also enabled good planning in the education sectors as it exposes development plans that can be budgeted for this is because spending is clearly identified and specific to output. On curriculum review there are many impacts that it has hard on the performance of schools which includes, it has enabled recognition of the needs of individual pupils and the staff available at that time. This also has ensured that to be related to pupil outcomes this is because they are self-motivated to work towards achieving their own goals this enables learners to achieve academic excellence rather than just completion of school ( Stout, 2001).
This also allows teachers to give their own views on the stipulated carrier and also site changes to areas that they find difficulty in. curriculum review brings about government support in education as they strive to give their citizens a good educational structure that enables enrolment of more students in schools ( Stout, 2001)
The curriculum on tackling the problems of individual pupils it answers questions whether there are attendance problem among some students with disability for instance or those with financial constraints. By this it ensures that both are access to education by the government as they put in place structures that ensure disabled people are taken care of and those that can not pay their school tuition fees too. When a curriculum has been reviewed then it takes into consideration the behavioral problem students, groups or subjects that were in contention. This curriculum will also see that schools provide effective and socio-cultural, spiritual, moral development of learners. This is interns of imparting necessary morals, spiritual nourishment to the people without leaving out the societal norms and values. This should also ensure a safe environment where students learn without fear this should see that there is no bullying in that environment and setting up counseling centers for students in schools to help students develop without having fear of one another. ( Stout,2001).
The curriculum should also asses the quality of teaching that will evaluate the individual subjects as this evaluation goes down to enable the teachers review the subjects periodically and come up with better learning materials for the students. Curriculum developed should also enable and include parents and guardians in the learning process which will give the proper understanding of what their children are learning in these institutions. This gives them an insight to be more supportive in that sector by paying through cost sharing and understanding why.
Curriculum review also will promote extra curriculum activities this include sports, vocational trainings. This helps in the cognitive development of students as it relieves them from academic stress that they are subjected to. This also includes playing grounds libraries and interactive sessions that bring them together such debates and inclusion of subjects that are interesting to the students. Thus to ensure effective learning, schools must put in place systems to assess their progress which supports the cycle of self-evaluation, planning and action. This cycle stages include gathering all the problems available a, arranging the problems in order of priorities and choosing the one to be dealt with first; planning how the need is to be dealt with by formulation of necessary policies then enactment; the progress is lastly monitored and evaluated.( Brophy, 1986)
The implementation of these developments in education there will be tremendous improvements in the sector for both the teachers, parents and the students themselves.
In conclusion the curriculum development should enable the enactment of the process of self- evaluation that will put more emphasis on the quality of all the available students' learning their interpersonal development and their achievements. It should also bring out a clear relationship should also be encouraged for smooth management of schools. And to ensure that the system works it should be compared to another school that performs better to evaluate the parts that the school has weakness on for improvements.
Transformational challenges that schools are always rigid to by ensuring a participatory development in curriculum bring about sustainability of the development process through ownership. It also calls for inventions and innovations through trial and error for the best system possible. Such schools encourage staff at all levels to reflect on their practice in order to look into their work in order to build on the areas that they are experiencing a weakness on which helps them in achieving their goals by overcoming their weaknesses. (Hopkins, 1994)
Effective leadership in schools
An effective management and leadership are very crucial components for improvements to exist in the learning institutions. The instructors and educators must rethink their concept of leadership as a notion that is far much larger than an individual and thus must be approached with a particular characteristics and abilities.…