Here, the information processing theory applies to the manner in which the board induces a multilayered engagement of the subject matter. The correlation of conceptual and practical application with a visual presentation conforms to the information processing idea that "information is stored in multiple locations throughout the brain in the form of networks of connections. It is consistent with the levels-of-processing approach in that the more connections to a single idea or concept, the more likely it is to be remembered." (Huitt, 1) As we have addressed technology based approaches to instruction, it bears noting that there are evolving opportunities in the fied of education to improve upon this multilevel engagement of material.
As an educator, you want to decrease undesirable behaviors in the educational environment. What is the best strategy to decrease these behaviors for each student? 1)Andrew who likes to utter profanities every now an then. 2) Sandy, who tells you to quit bugging her when you ask her questions. 3) Matt, who likes to mess up other students' papers. 4) Rebecca, who frequently talks with students around her while you are trying to explain or demonstrate something.
Student discipline is one of the primary functions of the educational profession. Though it is not always desirable to deviate from the educational aspects of classroom oversight, sometimes behavioral issues make this an absolute necessity. A failure to control the behavior in the classroom will induce a deficit in the necessary authority commanded by an instructor, damaging both credibility and effectiveness.
As the article by Ogonosky (2009) argues, this places a pressing impetus upon the instructor to achieve control over the classroom as a way both to enhance behaviorally problematic students' opportunities for learning and to diminish the threat of disruption for the other students in the classroom. Ogonosky warns that such disruption can take myriad forms and that a teacher must be prepared to confront this disruption appropriately in all of its forms. While there is never a condition in which disruptive or inappropriate behavior is to be accepted or tolerated, it is anticipated that an educator will nonetheless encounter these behaviors and perhaps with some regularity. As the article indicates, "tantrums, defiance, aggression, poor academic progress, poor social skills and passive noncompliance of requests (such as putting heads down on desks) can present a challenge. But educators can have success with children who have emotional disturbances if they get support from co-workers and consistently implement behavioral strategies and classroom management techniques." (Ogonosky, 1)
It is thus that Ogonosky continues with a discussion on the subject by providing educators with a number of suggestions concerning how best to manage and cope with these inevitable behavioral disruptions. First and foremost in Ogonosky's perception is the demand placed upon the teacher to understand the unique qualities of an individual's emotional status and behavioral needs. This means achieving a fully recognition of the patterns of behavior which have tended to be exhibited by the student, an awareness of the intervention strategies which have been proven successful with the student in the past and an awareness and effective avoidance of those events and interactions which are considered 'triggers' to inappropriate behaviors. (Ogonosky, 1)
These general considerations aside, specific problem students will present the instructor with specific challenges in terms of establishing control and retaining credibility in the classroom. A student such as Andrew, who has a tendency to utter the occasional profanity, may not be a behavioral problem on the larger scale. But it is clear that he desires attention, which causes him to seek it in the wrong ways. One approach to dealing with Andrew is to simply ignore the offending behavior. By not validating his attempt at gaining attention, he may begin to understand that this way of being noticed does not produce a desirable outcome. It is also important to pronounce this intention to Andrew, indicating that if he desires attention, he can gain it by engaging in class discussions and being nice to other students rather than by using disruptive language. Ultimately though, if Andrew is unwilling to alter his behavior, then it will become disruptive and problematic for the class, necessitated Andrew's removal and some broader consultation regarding his general behavioral issues.
Sandy appears to have a serious attitude problem and a willingness to demonstrate resistance to authority. Her insistence to not be bugged by the instructor indicates a willingness to undermine the teacher in front of the class and some cognitive dissonance where class participation is concerned. We may deduce that this comes from either a discomfort with learning material, an insecurity in terms of speaking in front of the class or both. First and foremost, the teacher should abide Sandy's wishes and cease demanding answers from her in front of the class. However, the teacher should also pull Sandy aside for a conference in order to ascertain whether or not she is grasping the material fully. Sandy's frustration may arise from academic problems that could be improved through tutorship or after-school help.
Matt is the most notably problematic of the students in question. His destructive tendencies and his proclivity to directly impede upon the work of others by destroying papers written by his fellow students suggests that Matt is struggling with an emotional disturbance. This has manifested in the type of dysfunctional aggression toward others which suggests he may be a resource room candidate.
Rebecca, on the opposite end of the spectrum, appears to be a pleasantly socialized child who yet has difficulty separating her social time from her class time. Based on Rebecca's apparent interest in the social conditions of school, I would expect an in-class interruption on her behalf to be effective in changing her behavior. A possible method of appeal is to stop instruction when Rebecca is speaking to her neighbors and to simply stare in her direction. When she sees that all eyes are on her, she should adjust her behavior.
The array of methods suggested here denotes the pragmatism demanded of the educator, suggesting that he or she must be as much a child therapist as an instructor.
There are several approach to learning. Discuss what learning is and what it is not. Identify and describe the behavioral and social cognitive approaches to learning. What do you see as the similarities and differences between these approaches?
All learners absorb information differently. It falls upon the teacher to adjust the pace and style of instruction to accommodate the needs and ambitions of students. For those of a higher aptitude or who crave challenge in their educational lives, the instructor may find that there is a distinct benefit to a faster pace of classroom lecture, practicum and problem solving demonstration. Students working on higher tracks will desire this pace in order to remain engaged and gain a sense of the dynamic opportunity in the classroom.
Where the aptitude is demonstrably present and where it will constitute no risk of leaving behind other students, the instructor will be benefited by moving briskly from one activity to another so as to retain the attention span of students accustomed to grasping concepts quickly and moving on to application. The advanced classroom teacher will especially find that this pace keeps students nimble and tuned in to the myriad outlets for new knowledge and insight. Slavin's (2005) text denotes that one of the best ways to promote this frenetic pace while maintaining the interest of students is to provide lessons in varied segments, moving quickly from a presentation of a concept to open discussion to activities and group projects which require practical use of such concepts.
There are instances when this quickness of pace might not be as appropriate or beneficial. First and foremost, in contexts where individuals are not all of an advanced learning aptitude, this approach could have excluding characteristics. Additionally, even where all students are of advanced learning capabilities, it may be appropriate to balance the quick pace of learning on some days with other more reflectively paced in-class lesson plans. The speed of induction should be complimented with more purposeful and concentrated deconstruction at other points.
Still, the use of a faster pace should be considered of value where students anticipate obtaining a wealth of knowledge over the course of class or a semester. Dividing a class into a multitude of activities may be especially beneficial because it will require the student to anticipate and prepare for participation during discussion or activity segments of the class. Such is to say that in classes where a professor only lectures for the duration of a period lasting an hour or longer, even where focus is not a challenge due to the professor's skill at engaging students and material, students are generally less likely to prepare for the lecture.
The Slavin text points out that the use of students as leaders and administrators of in-class…