Scientific Revolution Is a Change Term Paper

Download this Term Paper in word format (.doc)

Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formatting

Excerpt from Term Paper:

On orders of Pope Paul V, Galileo is ordered not to hold or defend the Copernican theory. Later, in 1624, Galileo was allowed to write about the Copernican theory provided that he treated it as a mathematical hypothesis. When Galileo published Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems in1630, comparing the Ptolemaic and Copernican models, the Church stopped its distribution and condemned Galileo to house arrest for the rest of his life.

The final steps leading to the rejection of Aristotle and Ptolemy come from Johannes Kepler, Rene Descartes and Isaac Newton. Kepler's laws of planetary motion describe an elliptical form and operation of planetary orbits that contradict Aristotle's assertion that the orbits of the planets were round circles.

In 1637, Rene Descartes published Discourse of Method, a work setting forth the principles of deductive reasoning as used in the modern scientific method. In short, his method required (1) accepting as truth only clear, distinct ideas that could not be doubted, (2) breaking a problem down into parts, (3) deducing one conclusion from another, and (4) conducting a systematic synthesis of all things. Descartes based his entire philosophical approach to science on this deductive method of reasoning in contrast to Aristotelian philosophy based on simple observation through reason alone.

Last, but certainly not least, Isaac Newton published Philosophia Naturalis Principia Mathematica in 1687. This book lays out Newton's model of the universe according to the laws of motion and gravitation that serve as a basis for today's physics and astronomy. Aristotle had believed that there is only a velocity if there is a force, but Newton proved that an object with a certain velocity maintains that velocity unless a force acts on it to cause an acceleration. Aristotle has formed his believe through his observation that had failed to capture the role played by frictional forces.

In summary, this paper demonstrated why there was a Scientific Revolution in 16th and 17th centuries, not just simple evolution. Science as we know it did not really emerge until this period. Once underway it dispelled commonly held principles based on simple observation by predecessors such as Aristotle and Ptolemy. And, it did so despite greater efforts to cling to tradition and religious beliefs.

Bibliography

'Aristotle." Available: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aristotle#Aristotelian_science (Accessed 16 Feb. 2005).

"Charles Darwin." Available: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Darwin (Accessed 16 Feb. 2005).

"Galileo and the Inquisition." Available: http://phyun5.ucr.edu/~wudka/Physics7/Notes_www/node52.html (Accessed 16 Feb. 2005).

"Johannes Kepler: The Laws of Planetary Motion." Available: http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr161/lect/history/kepler.html (Accessed 16 Feb. 2005).

"Newton's Three Laws of Motion." Available: http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr161/lect/history/newton3laws.html (Accessed 16 Feb. 2005).

"Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543)." Available: http://www.connect.net/ron/copernicus.html (Accessed 16 Feb. 2005).

"Ptolemy." Available: http://obs.nineplanets.org/psc/theman.html (Accessed 16 Feb. 2005).

"The Scientific Methods of Rene Descartes and Francis Bacon." Available: http://www.thingsrevealed.net/dscrtbacn.htm (Accessed 16 Feb. 2005).

"The Scientific Revolution (1550-1700)." Available: http://www.sparknotes.com/history/european/scientificrevolution/summary.html (Accessed 16 Feb. 2005).

"The Scientific Revolution (1550-1700)." Available: http://www.sparknotes.com/history/european/scientificrevolution/timeline.html (Accessed 16 Feb. 2005).

"Various Translations of Some of Aristotle's Works." Available: http://ffden-2.phys.uaf.edu/211_fall2004.web.dir/Danny_Dominick/Aristotle%20Page%202.html (Accessed 16 Feb. 2005).

"Various Translations of Some of Aristotle's Works." Available: http://ffden-2.phys.uaf.edu/211_fall2004.web.dir/Danny_Dominick/Aristotle%20Page%202.html (Accessed 16 Feb. 2005).

"Ptolemy." Available: http://obs.nineplanets.org/psc/theman.html (Accessed 16 Feb. 2005).

"Charles Darwin." Available: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Darwin (Accessed 16 Feb. 2005).

"Aristotle." Available: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aristotle#Aristotelian_science (Accessed 16 Feb. 2005).

"The Scientific Revolution (1550-1700)." Available: http://www.sparknotes.com/history/european/scientificrevolution/summary.html (Accessed 16 Feb. 2005).

"Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543)." Available: http://www.connect.net/ron/copernicus.html (Accessed 16 Feb. 2005).

"The Scientific Revolution (1550-1700)." Available: http://www.sparknotes.com/history/european/scientificrevolution/timeline.html (Accessed 16 Feb. 2005).

"Galileo and the Inquisition." Available: http://phyun5.ucr.edu/~wudka/Physics7/Notes_www/node52.html (Accessed 16 Feb. 2005).

"Johannes Kepler: The Laws of Planetary Motion." Available: http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr161/lect/history/kepler.html (Accessed 16 Feb. 2005).

"The Scientific Methods of Rene Descartes and Francis Bacon." Available: http://www.thingsrevealed.net/dscrtbacn.htm (Accessed 16 Feb. 2005).

"Newton's Three Laws of Motion." Available: http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr161/lect/history/newton3laws.html (Accessed 16 Feb. 2005).[continue]

Cite This Term Paper:

"Scientific Revolution Is A Change" (2005, February 16) Retrieved December 4, 2016, from http://www.paperdue.com/essay/scientific-revolution-is-a-change-62088

"Scientific Revolution Is A Change" 16 February 2005. Web.4 December. 2016. <http://www.paperdue.com/essay/scientific-revolution-is-a-change-62088>

"Scientific Revolution Is A Change", 16 February 2005, Accessed.4 December. 2016, http://www.paperdue.com/essay/scientific-revolution-is-a-change-62088

Other Documents Pertaining To This Topic

  • Scientific Revolution Was a Revolution

    How did Galileo respond to the edict? What did he do to protect himself? The original 1616 edict was not taken entirely seriously: "The Sun-Centered universe still remained an unproven idea -- without, [Pope] Urban believed, any proof in its future" (Sobel 138). However, Galileo still undertook steps to protect himself, defending his writings as a way: "to show Protestants to the north…that Catholics understood more about astronomy" (Sobel 140).

  • Scientific Method Scientific Revolution and

    Many inquiries were made into the universe, from how it worked to its creation, as well as the construction of a workable calendar and an understanding of numerous illnesses. These collective areas of discussion fall under the term of natural philosophy, or philosophy of nature. Before modern science was developed and widely used, natural philosophy was the prominent method of gaining knowledge. So dominant and involved was natural philosophy

  • Scientific Revolution in Order to

    Of course there exist different concepts of anti-modernism, which state that scientific revolution and modernism lead the society to the moral and spiritual decline. But their appeal to refuse from the achievements of scientific progress sounds absurd or as a regressive religious appeal of fundamentalists, who want to contradict natural matter of facts, set by the dynamic laws of nature. Making a conclusion it's important to say that scientific revolution

  • Scientific Revolution

    middle ages, scholastic thinking was structurally limited by the Catholic Church, which considered itself the arbiter of such matters. However, thanks to changes in the sciences and in the methodologies used to approach them, the sheer weight of evidence was able to defeat some of the old dogmas that restricted thinking. Changes in science took on mathematical, experimental, and political dimensions and eventually gave enlightenment thinkers the objectivity needed

  • Scientific Revolution & Enlightenment Scientific

    Two of the most important proponents were the French philosophes, Montesquieu and Jean Jacques Rousseau, whose great contributions to the Enlightenment lead to the development of liberal democracy characterized among modern societies at present. Montesquieu's discourse, entitled, "The Spirit of the Laws," provided objective and insightful propositions for reforms as societies change from being traditional to modern. According to him, the process towards social progress should be accompanied with material progress,

  • Scientific Revolution 1500 1700 A D the

    ' His ground-breaking "Principia Mathematica" published in 1687 argued that the universe could be explained completely through the use of Mathematics without resorting to theology or the scriptures; that the universe behaved in an entirely rational and predictable way explainable by the laws of physics. Newton thus argued, and proved his arguments by observation and the use of mathematics, that the universe was 'mechanistic' and behaved like a vast machine

  • Galileo and the Scientific Revolution

    In this way, scientific investigations that attempt to explain such things as the movement of the planets and the stars are truly a service to religions; they attempt to provide a clearer understanding of God's wonder through his Creation. With the study of the heavens, in particular, Galileo asserts that he is attempting to learn more about what Bible refers to as the place of man's salvation, and what


Read Full Term Paper
Copyright 2016 . All Rights Reserved