Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formattingExcerpt from Essay:
The policy implications of adopting such a model are profound, given that they suggest that merely removing barriers such as childcare demands or providing transportation may not be enough to deter individuals from their psychological motivational obstacles to enhancing their learning, and that the decision to embark upon and continue an educational program is highly subjective. In the cost-benefit theory, variables that affect decisions and motivational levels are tuition, materials, transportation, value of time invested in learning, expected income, although it does take into consideration how age, race, school completed, reason for resuming school may create a perception of greater or less economic costs of the education. The utility model views educational activity as financial investment and looks at the expected rate of return in increased earnings vs. working during the hours one must spend studying and in the classroom (Stowe 1998, p. 16). Participation may be influenced by incomplete knowledge about the benefits of education, but once these barriers are overcome, motivation is assumed to be higher, even though in the case of the Cambodian women, such knowledge was not the major part of their decision-making process, and may have acted as a deterrent, as it may have affected their relationship with their husbands in a way that was culturally unacceptable to them as well as the male members of the society (Stowe 1998, p.16).
Online learning, for example, has been suggested as a convenient way to address logistical complaints. But by taking learners outside of a social learning community at all, motivation may decrease some learner's motivational levels even further, even without cultural barriers. The new paradigm acknowledges that motivations and obstacles to participation can be perceptual and situation-based, rather than something that can be measured in terms of general physical factors that can apply to all situations, or the irrelevance of the course to desired economic advancement. Motivation may seem high in the classroom, and decrease outside of the classroom, when homework is due and the individual is in a new cultural context outside of the classroom. Teachers and program designers must keep this in mind when relating to students, in terms of how they motivate student performance to strive to create a motivational carry-over effect.
The cultural and social influences that motivate an individual to return to school are not always negative, it should be added. For example, one small qualitative study by Jang and Merriman (2004) examined why it is so common for already well-educated Korean women to return to higher education, either to 4-year universities, graduate schools, or learning centers, after their children had left home. All cited the need to find their identity as independent individuals once again and the authors concluded that the Korean value placed upon education was a contributing cultural factor that facilitated their return to school. What is so interesting about this study was that there was no economic motivation or reason for these women to return to school, most did not perceive themselves as using their degree in the workforce, but the motivation of personal fulfillment drove them and disciplined them to embark upon a program of study.
All adult learners, research is beginning to suggest, are constantly torn between the competing demands of the worlds of work, family, self and community, and one sphere of the learner's life may take precedence during different parts of his or her education. Carl Karsworm (2003) from her interviews with adult learners have suggested that all learners carry within them a series of competing voices, what she calls the entry voice, the outside voice, the cynical voice, the straddling voice, and the inclusion voice. The 'entry voice' may urge the learner into a new program, but the cynical voice may doubt the value of adding to one's educational capabilities late in life, or the straddling voice may be more concerned with work or family life. This is not to say that logistical concerns should be ignored by school administrators and policy makers. Funding, childcare, and other issues still play a role in the decision-making process, to different degrees depending on the individual. But it does suggest that adult learner's motivations for embarking upon learning efforts are complex, and cannot be assumed to be corrected easily, with educational policy changes alone. The instructor and the individual must strive to have some psychological astuteness about how to address the student's ambiguities about roadblocks that may arise during the learning process, as such barriers inevitably will, given the multitasking demanded of the adult student learner in today's environment.
Basile, K. & Henry, G. (1984). "Understanding the decision to participation in formal adult education." Adult Education Quarterly. 44: 64-82.
Bender, H. & Valentine, T. (1990). Motivational profiles of adult basic education students. Adult Education Quarterly, 40: 78-94.
Brookfield, S. (1985). Self-directed learning: From theory to practice. London: Jossey-Bass Inc.
Darkenwald, G. & Valentine, T. (1985). "Factor structure of deterrents to public participation in adult education." Adult Education Quarterly, 35: 177-193.
Darkenwald, G. & Valentine, T. (1990). "Deterrents to public participation in adult education:
Profiles of potential learners." Adult Education Quarterly, 41: 29-41.
Jang, Suh Young & Sharon Merriam. (2004). "Korean culture and the reentry: Motivations of university-graduated women. Adult Education Quarterly, 54(4): 273-290.
Retrieved August 16, 2008, from Research Library database. (Document ID: 672913171).
Knowles, M.S. (1975). Self-directed learning: A guide for learners and teachers. New York:
Knowles, M.S. (1989). The making of an adult educator. London: Jossey-Bass Inc.
Kasworm, Carol. (2003). Adult meaning making in the undergraduate classroom. Adult Education Quarterly, 53(2): 81-98. Retrieved August 16, 2008, from Research Library database (Document ID: 280242151).
Long, H.B. (1983). Adult Learning: Research and practice. New York: The Adult Education Co.
Skilton-Sylvester, Ellen (2002). "Should I stay or should I go? Investigating Cambodian women's participation and investment in adult ESL programs. Adult Education
Quarterly. 53(1): 9-26. Retrieved August 16, 2008, from Research Library database. (Document ID: 210358111).
Taylor, M. (1990). Learning for self-direction in the classroom: The pattern of a transition process. Studies in Higher Education. 11(1).
Stowe, Peter. (1998, Aug). "Adult education participation decisions and barriers: Review of conceptual…[continue]
"Self-Directed Learning A Paradigm Shift" (2008, August 17) Retrieved October 28, 2016, from http://www.paperdue.com/essay/self-directed-learning-a-paradigm-hift-28461
"Self-Directed Learning A Paradigm Shift" 17 August 2008. Web.28 October. 2016. <http://www.paperdue.com/essay/self-directed-learning-a-paradigm-hift-28461>
"Self-Directed Learning A Paradigm Shift", 17 August 2008, Accessed.28 October. 2016, http://www.paperdue.com/essay/self-directed-learning-a-paradigm-hift-28461
Still, Mason indicates that the opposite is often true in public education settings, where educators, parents and institutions collectively overlook the implications of research and demands imposed by law. Indeed, "despite the IDEA requirements, research results, teacher perceptions, and strong encouragement from disabilities rights advocate, many youth have been left out of IEP and self-determination activities. For example, 31% of the teaches in a 1998 survey reported that they
Addictive Paradigm A paradigm is a conceptual model. It puts a frame around ideas and assumptions in order to give a sense of direction for understanding and action. In the field of alcoholism and addiction, the frames of reference most commonly used until recently have encased pictures in the frames of the personal: struggles, challenges, control and acceptance that come with looking alcohol and what it does to one as an
The general challenge in online education is the failure to embrace the paradigm that online programs are fundamentally different than traditional pedagogy, and must include alternative ways to link learning styles and learning outcomes. Failure to acknowledge the difference and to adjust delivery to meet the delivery medium runs the risk or providing ineffective instruction. The specific problem is that although there is a body of literature addressing online
popularized social and cultural trends are merging, intentionally or not, toward laying the foundation for generating a new narrative about what it means to learn across a lifespan in an environment conducive to healthy living. It seeks to examine the coalescing of what is called lifelong learning side-by-side with the theories and practices related to the evolution of ecological thinking and environmental awareness. The idea that life can be
The police department, by its very nature, cannot embrace all seven of Vaill's way of being/learning at all times. However, most are actually covered, at least in the progressive departments: Way of Being Example in Police Department Self-Directed Learning Probably the most prominent characteristic; in order to grow in the job, or even keep up with the requirements, officers must be self-directed as part of a larger scheme in learning. For an officer to
Conceptually, many agree as to what constitutes a servant leader, although many variations of these characteristics can be found in the literature. The terms "servant" and "leader" may seem contradictory, which is one of the greatest barriers to operationalizing the concept of the servant leader in modern organizations. The following will examine key literature regarding the ability to operationalize the concept of the servant leader. What Distinguishes the Servant Leader? The
" Shin (2006) Shin also states that the CMC literature "illustrates shifts of focus to different layers of context." Early on, research relating to CMC in language learning and teaching looked at the linguistic content of CMC text to examine how language learners could improve certain communication functions and learn linguistic figures through CMC activities (Blake, 2000; Chun, 1994; Kern, 1995; Ortega, 1997; Pellettieri, 2000; Smith 2000, Sotlillo, 2000; Toyoda