.." Kotter specifically is noted as having stated as follows:
"Leadership is different from management but not for the reason most people think. Leadership isn't' mystical and mysterious. It has nothing to do with having charisma or other exotic personality traits. It's not leadership necessarily better than management or a replacement for it: rather leadership and management are two distinctive and complementary activities. Both are necessary for success..." (Kotter, 1990, p.103 cited in Bolden, 2004)
V. Policy and Strategy
In most cases quality in ministry is defined as "meeting or exceeding the expectations of needs of the customer in such a way as to fully satisfy him or her." (Kallestad) But the purpose of this paper is not to make a business process out of ministry but to make the business of ministry a quality process. The quality performance of a church is typically measured primarily by its size, participation in programs and/or financial indicators. Recently, however, a new awareness of quality beyond material issues has begun to surface (see below, Hybels). This focus embraces those core values that count for eternity, which may suggest the need to introduce a new term: "Quality for Eternity." Quality for Eternity stands for those values that count for eternity (to be defined). It does not only refer to organizations, it may also be applied to one's spiritual growth in knowing God (2Petr 3:18; 2 Cor 3:18; 1 Tim 1,5). It's about loving Him and the church, while serving the world.
Quality for Eternity in the context of the EFQM model "does not try to make people with zero defects, nor does it try to make people the product of continuous improvement. It does seek continuous improvement and zero defects in the way ministry is accomplished." (Kallestad). God demands our best; anything less does not honor God, and conveys an inaccurate message to the watching world. Regular evaluation and review must be a part of all who belong to the family of faith. As believers we should be committed to being good stewards of the resources of time, money, and abilities God has given them (Ps 78:72; Col 3:17).
Policy and Strategy are to be based on the stakeholder's present and future expectations and needs. Policy and strategy are based upon information and knowledge gained from measuring performance as well as from research and learning and creativity-related activities. It is necessary that after having developed policies and strategies in the organizations that they are reviewed and updated on a regular basis. Development of policy and strategy are stated to be "deployed through a framework of key processes." (excellence.efqm.org) Furthermore, policy and strategy must be communicated and implemented throughout the organization.
According to the EFQM Excellent Model people and people resources in the organization are "planned, managed and improved" and as well the knowledge and competencies of people are "identified, developed and sustained." People are furthermore, "involved and empowered and there is an ongoing dialogue between people and the organization and finally people are "rewarded, recognized and care for." ( )
The work of Dr. Robert Klenck entitled: "What's Wrong with the 21st Century Church" states that the new movement used today in many churches is one that can be defined as "The utilization of modern marketing techniques by the church in order to draw and hold large numbers of people. The church then 'converts' them and 'disciples' them through the use of modern organizational management techniques so that they can effect 'change' in the community and the world." (Klenck, nd) The result is that church members effectively become "agents of social change, or 'change agents'." (Klenck, nd) Klenck reports that many of these churches are "planted, after a survey is taken of the surrounding community. The 'felt needs' of the community are then compiled and the church is tailored around meeting those needs." (nd)
Reverend Bill Hybels, founder of Willowcreek Church in South Barrington, Illinois and Dr. rick Warren, founder of Saddleback Valley Community Church in Mission Viejo, California are both proponents of these types of churches and Klenck reports that each of these individuals "readily admit to being influenced by Dr. Robert H. Schuller, founder of the Crystal Cathedral in Orange, California" and specifically in the area of the use of community surveys. According to Rick Warren on his method of preparing a sermon Warren states he first considers:
"To whom will I be preaching? & #8230; Then, I consider what are their needs, hurts, and interests, and I ask a second question: 'What does the Bible say about their needs?'" & #8230; Once he examines what the Bible says about the subject, he asks himself: "What is the most practical way to say this? What is the most positive way to say this? What is the most encouraging way to say this? What is the simplest way to say this? What is the most personal way to say this? What is the most interesting way to say this?" (in Klenck, nd)
Upon the individual professing faith in Christ, they are made a member of the church and then are directed upon a path of 'discipleship' which has four stages stated to be 101, 201, 301,, and 401 which is a model generally consisting of "concentric circles" and which involves the signing of covenants at each level. According to Matthew 5:33-37 the signing of covenants is not a Biblical practice. The covenants are such that require that people refrain from swearing, gossiping and the like and to follow the church leadership unquestioningly.
Eight trends are highlighted in Messer's work and the first is stated to be that "the church in the United States has been disestablished." (nd) Messer states that mainline protestants "seem to be apathetically powerless in contemporary and political processes." (nd) The third trend is stated to be the emergence of "a new ecumenism...at a local congregational level" which is a movement defined by "merging denominations and the work and witness of the National Churches...floundering..." (Messer, nd) Denominations are not disappearing although the denominations are loosely claimed and their principles very loosely applied. Stated fifth in these trends is that "national church hierarchies and bureaucracies are less than powerful and influential in relation to local churches." (Messer, nd) The sixth stated trend is that of local churches being on the increase of becoming "the object of mission rather than the agents of mission. National agencies, originally created to do ministry on the frontiers no one local congregation could touch, are now being asked with their limited resources to provide services to local churches." (Messer, nd) Messer states that the seventh trend is that "...denominations are nearly paralyzed by internal theological and political polarization. The division of so-called "evangelicals" and "liberals" appears so pronounced and profound as to prohibit progress in many areas of the church's life and work. National studies reveal that the "population divides itself almost evenly between these two categories, with various gradations of extremity and moderation in each. . . . Lutherans, Baptists, Methodists, and Roman Catholics all have about equal numbers of religious liberals and religious conservatives among their members." Increasingly, Christians within denominations no longer can communicate or tolerate one another." (Messer, nd)
The eighth and final trend stated by Messer is that the "future ain't what it used to be. Cataclysmic change has swept the globe in recent years, as the Cold War has subsided, new technologies of communication have been developed, and a global economy has emerged. A hundred years ago, 34% of the world's population was Christian. In the year 2000 it is anticipated that 34% of the population will still be Christian, but the center of gravity has shifted from the so-called "First World" to the "Two-Third's World."(Messer, nd)
VII. Partnership & Resources
Partnerships and external partnerships of the organization are managed as are organizational finances, building, equipments, materials, technology and information and knowledge of the organization. Churches today are typically very reliant on partnerships with other churches and non-profit agencies and the pooling or combining of resources in meeting the needs of the community. For example, the church in many cases will partner with organizations such as 'meals on wheels' and other outreach agencies in contacting community members and meeting the needs of the individuals in the community.
Processes within the EFQM model are also described as 'best practices' or that which best serves to reach the goal of excellence in the organization. The EFQUM Model is one that is based on common sense and that involves the following:
(1) proper training;
(2) development of continuous improvement processes;
(3) integration of the self-assessment process into its business planning and policy development cycles;