Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formattingExcerpt from Essay:
Separation Church State
Study by NORC which was held at the University of Chicago reveals that although abruptly divided, people's attitudes towards homosexuals are changing swiftly, young generation leads the way. Hence there is greater acceptance and positivity. Majority of public is not just in favor of same-sex relationships and marriages but they do also support elementary civil liberties and independence of expression of homosexuals overwhelmingly. This fact goes totally in contrast to strident division on these concerns in the 1970s (Harms, 2011). However, author of the NORC report named "Public Attitudes toward Homosexuality" and director of the GSS at NORC, Tom W. smith concluded from studies that there is a growing trend of greater tolerance towards homosexuality. The supporting level for same-sex marriages rose dramatically over the last 20 years. Percentage went from 11% positive in 1988 to 46% in 2010 after surveying more than 2000 people (Harms, 2011). According to Smith, there was a big generation gap in the problem. Supporting same-sex marriage also reflects generational difference of opinion. In the survey held in 2010, 26% of people under 30 were against same-sex marriage whilst 63% of people being 70 and aged more were supporting the idea. As a conclusion, there is an abrupt division of opinion regarding this issue. After survey, 44% of people were against this relation, 41% were positive about this relation while 11% were in between about always wrong and sometimes right. Thus, these opinions are highly polarized with only few people standing on middle ground as per thoughts of Smith (Harms, 2011).
According to GSS which is being conducted for last 40 years, there is an obvious rise in support of homosexual's civil liberties. Favor of gays' and lesbians' freedom of speech grew from 62 to 86% in between 1972 and 2010; provision for homosexual's teaching profession rose from 48% in 1973 to more than 84% in 2010 (Johann, 2011). After remaining constant for years, this change towards acceptance of homosexuality started changing in late 1980s. 70% of people were against same sex relation in 1973 while in 1987, 75% people held this view. The number dropped to 54% in 2000 and in 2010, 43.5% were against this relation (Harms, 2011.)
Statements of Michele Bachmann, Rick Santorum, or Mitt Romney related to America's alienated experience of right present's homosexuality is about an intruder that gate-crashed America back in 1969 in the face of a revolting queen with a tall heel clutched in her hand as an armament (Johann, 2011.)This clearly hints that this fag doesn't originally roots here in America but there is something odd about it. People talking about honoring American history have built a historical picture of their country which is need to be scrubbed clean in order to be sustained Cultural critic Michael Bronski in his new book "A Queer History of the United States" runs the film backwards and shows that throughout the history of 500 years of American life, there were homosexuals in every making and remaking of America (Johann, 2011). They were some of the great icons of America like Emily Dickinson, Calamity Jane and perhaps Abraham Lincoln. In his book he also argues that they had a historical goal in America. This goal was to expose Puritanism, scolding as well as sexual intolerance. But strangely, they abandoned their mission as they demanded the most domestic goal of all and that goal was monogamous marriage (Johann, 2011.)
Before the arrival of Cristopher Columbus, America was the safest place for gay settlers. Limited evidence provided by historians that Bronski draws, suggests that homosexuality was treated as a matter of fact in Native American tribes. Nicholas Biddles observed in the records of Lewis and Clarks expeditions that among Mamitarees, if a boy had symptoms of girlish inclinations he was considered a girl, bought and dressed as a girl and also married to men at times. However, it was observed by a white man that in among crow tribe, man dressed in woman's attire and expertise in women's work was accepted and also honored at times, while a woman who led men in battles and/or had four wives was considered as a respected chief. One tribe accepted homosexuality by making young men available as sexual resources which may sound as a rape (Johann, 2011.)
State's acceptance of homosexuality
More than 50% of Americans supported gay and lesbian relationships in 2010 which was symbolic threshold. In contrast, the percentage of people who were against this relation dropped to 43 which was the lowest in Gallop's decade-long trend. This growing acceptance soared optimism among Gay Americans that one day issues regarding homosexuality will no longer divide the nation (Page, 2012.)
Three out of four respondents of survey who identified themselves as lesbian, gay or bisexual say that they are usually open with public about their sexual alignment. Nine out of 10 say that people have become more approving in their community in recent years. This fact is backed through nationwide USA today poll which reveals that majority support gay marriage and adoption while there is greater approval of economic rights of same sex couples (Page, 2012.) More than 50% predict that someday whole country will have a general opinion on such issues. This trend of support tend to accelerate instead of reversing as 73% of people aged between 18 to 29 are in favor of homosexuality and same sex marriage. (Page, 2012). More than a third of American respondents say that their opinions have changed dramatically over time about gay marriages, an issue which is being battled across the nation and before Supreme Court.
Since 1998, voters in almost 30 states have accepted constitutional changes that define marriage as between man and woman only, eight other states have ratified statutes barring gay marriage. District of Columbia and nine states have also legalized same-sex marriages. Maryland and Washington were the first states to approve gay-marriage by popular votes.
Church's view on homosexuality
The American Baptist Church USA clasps diversity inside family structure. According to the guidelines, the church keeps the people's rights in order to construct mutually gratifying human associations. But during November 2005, there was a vote by General Board to change the document titled as "We are American-Baptists" by asserting that that American Baptists have been those who accept the preaching of Scripture that God's plan for sexual intercourse positions it in the perspective of marriage amid one man as well as one woman; and realize that the idea involving homosexuality is unsuited with Biblical principles (Human rights campaign 2012). It was determined in a 1992 denominational voting that the idea of homosexuality has been unsuited with Christian principles. Although church acknowledges the fact that individual associates might not concur with the approved resolutions and that that these issues about sexual orientation need full engagement in negotiation.
During 2006, 300 churches and more of ABC's (USA) Pacific Southwest region voted to pull-out from their million-and-a-half member parent denomination once the leaders backed off from addressing issues relating to the membership of "welcoming as well as affirming" churches, or perhaps churches, which recognize homosexual impenitent members. U.S. conference of Catholic bishops is against same-sex marriage on the ground that marriage is a realistic, private and lifelong unification amid a man and a woman.
The conference stated in 2003 that homosexual unions are called so because they do not express entire human complementarity as well as because homosexuals are inherently no procreative. During 2006, the conference repeated its formerly stated support for a federal marriage amendment. In 2009, the conference distributed a pastoral memo on marriage which again define institution of marriage as a bonding between man and woman (pew research, 2012)
Importance of Homosexuality in America
Basic human rights include freedom of speech, liberty, civil rights. And no citizen should be denied of these fundamental rights on the basis of sex, race or religion. Although it is proven that homosexuality has existed since the time human history is documented, framers of constitution do not deny the rights of citizens of the basic grounds of their sexual preference. Hence, this is totally legal. American homosexuals started to shape themselves and fight for those rights which they didn't receive yet after being inspired by Africans American Civil Rights Movement. With this rise of activist, opponents appeared eventually and thus this issue of rights became a legal and controversial battle still being fought with no winning party (Nguyen, 1991.)
Gays clear their identification on a ground that homosexuality has been a characteristic to which they are attached since childhood or birth. Thus, they don't have any choice on their homosexuality similar to heterosexuals who also not have choice over their heterosexuality. So regardless of their ethnic race, origin or outer appearance, they do not have control over their gayness. Furthermore, empirical research on adult sexual orientation as well as molestation of children concluded that children are molested more by heterosexual men that gay men.
Based on these facts, homosexuals forced the government…[continue]
" 1 January 1802. Library of Congress. 19 September 2010
Freed from original sin, the City of God is the perfection of harmony between God and human beings. In his book, Augustine then finally dispels the idea of the Roman Empire being the earthly establishment of God's kingdom. It was simply too imperfect. Hence, he promoted the separation of Church and state as entities with two distinct purposes on earth. Because of this separation, Augustine holds that Christians cannot feel
They felt that it was time the people were let free to practice what they believe and express their views and the only way to achieve this was to adopt democracy since theocracy did not provide a chance for such freedom. The other factor that probably led the founding fathers to rebel against theocracy was the fact the Church of England was being controlled by the king (Simpson, 1955).
The Catholic Church Government The internal government of the early Church was formed within the framework of the Roman Empire, and bishops exercised authority over the Christian community in each Roman municipium. By the third century, a shift took place as the bishops of each Roman province formed the habit of meeting in a provincial synod, presided over by the bishop of the capital city, meaning the metropolitan bishop or archbishop.
Free exercise can be explained as follows: "If a rigidly observed policy of neutrality would discriminate against campus organizations with religious purposes or impinge on an individual's right to freedom of speech or free exercise of religion," then a state organization such as a public school would be obliged to permit religion on campus (p. 43). However, the free speech clause of the First Amendment has been cited for
Catholic church and public policy have remarked that the members of American clergy in general, without even excepting those who do not admit religious liberty, are all in favour of civil freedom; but they do not support any particular political system. They keep aloof from parties, and from public affairs. In the United States religion exercises but little influence upon laws, and upon the details of public opinion; but it
Wade, Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pa v. Casey; Stenberg v. Carhart, where the courts, with public concurrence, have debated the question of whether or not a partially birth child is indeed a person whose right to live should be challenged. The separation of powers should have prevented the courts from taking on the moral question of abortion. The elected representatives should have been responsible for legislating laws that would govern
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