Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formattingExcerpt from essay:
This was a clear gap in the research that was examined. The proposed research study will attempt to fill this gap by examining the importance of the adult child and parent relationship and its affect on the physical body.
A number of different study methods were found amongst the studies in the literature review. Many of the studies that examined the use of psychotherapy with the treatment of a condition used a comparative study method. Clinical trials used a comparative study method in most cases. However, studies that were found to be theoretical in nature tended to use either a qualitative interview method or quantitative study methods.
No single method of study was found to be more prevalent in the group studied during the literature review. The method selected was highly dependant on the subject matter and the research question being asked in the study. no single method of study was found to be preferred in this group of literature.
Transactional Analysis Studies
The dynamic power interplay between child and parent is an important factor in the development of behavioural problems in children and in the mother's ability to cope with their behaviours (Gross, Shaw, & Burwell, 2009). This study found that when children develop behaviour problems in school the mothers often internalize symptoms and are more prone to development of depression. Behavioural problems in childhood of both result of increased power struggles between the adult and the child.
Transactional analysis is one of the most effective means for studying the relationships between two groups. One of the core concepts of transactional analysis is that there are three ego-states that people tend to use. The first is the parent (exteropsyche). In this state people behave, feel, and think in a manner that mimics the way in which their parents behaved, felt, and acted. At very closely ties in with social learning theory which states that a child will learn their patterns of behaviour by watching those round them. As many other behaviours are shape during childhood, the most likely person for them to mimic is their parents.
The adult (neopsyche) occurs when a person makes a decision in a state of mind that is highly analytical and lacks emotion. The decision is pragmatic and only based and unreasonable information. The third and final state is the child (archaeopsyche), is the state in which a person in behaves, thinks, or feels as they did when they were a child. Often a person may not realize that this is where the current behaviour comes from. Sometimes the adult may filter their behaviors, not realizing that it was a childhood a motion that starts the response.
To parent and child relationship can extend beyond the childhood home and to many places an adult life. For instance, a supervisor may take on a parental role and treat their employees as if they were children. A child may reverse the role and scold their parents in adulthood. One of the most important things to understand about transactional theory is that it is not only referring to the parent and child roles as they were during a person's actual childhood.
Transactional analysis involves examining the behaviours and transactions amongst people to determine what role each of them is playing. Transactional studies allow the researcher to see the power relationships between various members of the interaction group. The researcher can then use this information to create models into learn about how humans interact with each other. Transactional analysis will play an important in the proposed research study. Historical use other transactional analysis method provides key support for use of this method in this study.
One of the key considerations that must be taken into account in this study is whether culture has an impact on transactional analysis between the parent an adult child. Transactional analysis typically describes parenting in terms of the degree of control or autonomy that is given to the child by the parents (Shewho k, 2006). Many studies found during the literature review take a decidedly western approach to the issue of child autonomy. This results in the development of a therapy approach that is in not culturally sensitive. In the United States for instance, a major portion of the population is Latino. Norms in Latino culture may influence the results of the study. These cultural factors must be taken into account in order to make an accurate analysis at the behaviours that occur between a parent and child (McCabe, Yeh, & in Garland, 2005). This factor will play an important role in the proposed research study because it will affect the manner in which the adult child reacts to certain situations. For instance, if they learned to respond to the adult with withdrawal and erratic emotional behaviour, this may translate into adult relationships.
Parental behavioural control is a multi-dimensional discipline. There are many stages and factors that help define this important relationship. For instance, parental knowledge describes how much a parent knows about the situation of the child. Parental expectations represent the rules and goals that by the parents for their child. Parental monitoring the process of tracking the child to make certain that they achieve the parental goals and expectations. Parental discipline refers to the enforcement of rules and goals by the parent. Some parents are more demanding than others and had different means of monitoring in enforcing their rules (Shek, 2006).
The parent child relationship is the primary mechanism for establishing the course that a dull relationships will take. The importance of this relationship cannot be underestimated when analyzing the adult. This relationship can be described using three qualities. First quality is trust. Trust goes two way. One can describe the child's trust in the parents and the parents trust in the child (Shek, 2006). The second area is the readiness of the child to communicate with their parents. This is necessary to facilitate the socialization process, limiting the ability of the parent to control the child (Shek, 2006). These dimensions or found to differ considerably amongst Chinese parents and their children. Evaluating Chinese parenting qualities really western standards would lead to erroneous results (Shek, 2006). Qualities of the parent of relationship must be described in the analysed according to the appropriate culture. This factor will become important in the proposed research study, particularly if the sample population contains persons a bit different culture.
Implications of the parent-child relationship
The focus of this study in only adult child. However, in order to understand the impact of the parent and child relationship on the adult, we must examine the most about ending category of studies on the parent-child relationship. Studies regarding the parental relationship during childhood of more numerous the than literature found in any other subcategory of the literature review. Many of the studies concentrate on finding causal relationships between the development of child and adult behaviours and parental relationships child. Although many of the studies maintained positive causal relationships between the factors, other confounding variables are often found be present. Therefore, drawing conclusions based on the studies and using these studies in a therapeutic situation must be done with caution.
Some of the most important studies regarding studies of the parent-child relationship explored a variety of topics stemming from this most important relationship. The parent-child relationship was found to be an important factor in internalizing and externalizing behaviors in early childhood (Hollenstein, Granic, & Stoolmiller et al., 2004). Another study found a correlation between style of parent-child communication and alcohol use amongst first year college students (Cremeens, Usdan, & Brock-martin, 2008). A direct correlation was found between oppositional children in the parent-child when relationship. Successful treatment of these children depended on the ability to foster a more productive parent-child relationship (Nixon, Sweeney, & Erickson, 2004).
In homeless children it was found that fostering a positive parent-child relationship was an important factor in assuring that the child develop normally, despite their unusual living arrangements (Kelly, Buehlman, and Caldwell, 2000). Parent-child relationships were found to be an important factor in the functioning of preschool boys who had been diagnosed with pervasive hyperactivity (Keown & Woodward, 2002). It was also found a ban important factor in different levels of oppositional defiant behaviour (Johnston, 1996).
One of the most widely publicized aspects of the parent-child relationship is its role in the development of literacy in children. It is considered to be an established fact in the school system that fostering a positive parent-child relationship will lead to higher achievement levels in literacy. This fact is supported by an academic research that highlights the role of the parent-child relationship in the academic setting (Dodici, Draper, & Peterson, 2003). Children have parents who read them develop better literacy skills than those whose parents do not read to them.
The effects of that era child relationship during childhood are apparent and supported by a plethora of academic research. However, the not as many longitudinal studies that support the…[continue]
"Somatic Psychology The Somatic Relationship" (2009, September 23) Retrieved October 21, 2016, from http://www.paperdue.com/essay/somatic-psychology-the-relationship-19210
"Somatic Psychology The Somatic Relationship" 23 September 2009. Web.21 October. 2016. <http://www.paperdue.com/essay/somatic-psychology-the-relationship-19210>
"Somatic Psychology The Somatic Relationship", 23 September 2009, Accessed.21 October. 2016, http://www.paperdue.com/essay/somatic-psychology-the-relationship-19210
Psychology How Animal Therapy Assists Various Kinds of Patients Animals and humans have had a long and multifaceted relationship over time. There are many of us who have visited petting zoos, regular zoos, and kept pets in our homes. People who have bonded with animals know first hand how strong the connection can be between a person and an animal. It is only been in the past several decades where formal research
Psychology Treatment For most of U.S. history up to the time of the Community Mental Health Act of 1963, the mentally ill were generally warehoused in state and local mental institutions on a long-term basis. Most had been involuntarily committed by orders from courts or physicians, and the discharge rate was very low. Before the 1950s and 1960s, there were few effective treatments for mental illnesses like depression, anxiety disorders and
Psychology of Aging Aging of whole organisms is a complex process that can be defined as a progressive deterioration of physiological function, an intrinsic age-related process of loss of viability and increase in vulnerability. Many psycholological and physical changes in humans can be brought about by aging, it is the most normal and regular process that affect human beings either positively or negatively. The most important stage of aging can be
Knowing this, Strenger points out that therapists need to consider "who can work with whom," because the therapeutic outcome may be greatly affected by the "chemistry" between therapist and client. The egalitarian principle in the therapeutic relationship gets played out further in qualitative studies (such as Gallegos, 2005 and Cohen, 2005) in which client experiences in the mental health system and subjective accounts of symptom relief from psychotherapy are
Diversity and Psychology There were two major developments that influenced the field of psychology and the professions' views regarding multicultural competence, emphasized in 2003. The American Psychological Associations' 2002 Ethical Principles and Code of Conduct and the Guidelines on Multicultural Education, Training, Research, Practice and Organizational Change for Psychologists published in 2003 both stressed the importance of moving from a mono-cultural school of thought to a multicultural perspective and that these
Personality Social Psychology Suzanne Kobasa's Personality and Social Psychology article entitled "Stressful Life Events, Personality, and Health: An Inquiry into Hardiness" builds upon past research to examine individual and group differences regarding responses to stressful life events. The author provides extensive reviews of past literature, pointing out the limitations that led to her conducting the current study. Much literature has shown a correlation between stressful life events and physical illness; namely,
EarlyChildhood Norton, B. et al. (2011) "Somatic Expressions of Trauma in Experiential Play Therapy" in International Journal of Play Therapy, Vol. 20, No. 3, 138 -- 152. Researchers have found connections between animal and human responses to trauma that are important in understanding somatic (non-verbal) cues and conditioning. Some research has been done that shows parallels between animal behaviors and child behaviors in cases of abuse and neglect, although the literature