Starting From 19th Century Psychology School of Essay

Download this Essay in word format (.doc)

Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formatting

Excerpt from Essay:

Starting from 19th century psychology, school of thought of behaviorist shared commonalities and as well ran concurrently with the 20th century psychology of psychoanalytic and Gestalt movements, however it was different from Gestalt psychologists' mental philosophy in significant ways. Psychologists who had major influences in it were Edward Lee Thorndike, John B. Watson, they opposed method of introspective and advocated to use of experimental methods: Ivan Pavlov, investigated classical conditioning, but he was not to the idea of behaviorists or behaviorism: B.F. Skinner, he did his research on operant conditioning.

During second half of the 20th century, it was widely eclipsed that behaviorism was due to cognitive revolution. Even though behaviorism as well as cognitive schools of psychological thought tends to disagree in terms of theory, they have gone a head to compliment one another within applications of practical therapeutic, for example, cognitive-behavioral therapy has shown utility in treating some pathologies like simple phobias, addition and PTSD. Moreover, behaviorism tries to establish a wide-range model of behavior stream starting with the human birth to his death.


Behaviorism which is as well termed as learning perspective, is a philosophy psychology derived from the fact that every thing that is being done by an organism as well as feeling, thinking and acting, might and are suppose to be taken as behaviors. These behaviors are being maintained by behaviorist school of thought that they are capable to be described scientifically with no recourse be it to hypothetical constructs or internal physiological events like the mind. The composition of behaviorism is that every theories are suppose to posses observational correlates however differences in term of the philosophy involving privately processes like feeling or thinking and publicly observable processes like actions, are not existing.

Skinner put more emphasis on processes of reinforcement, and they were taken as basic in the shaping of behavior. There is a misconception which is common that reinforcements negatively are the same as punishment. Such misconception tends to be pervasive, and generally it is also got from Skinner's scholarly accounts and his contributions. Positive reinforcement can be described as behavior strengthening by use of certain events like praise for a performed behavior, while negative reinforcement is to strengthen a behavior through avoidance or removal of certain aversive events, for example to open or raise an umbrella over ones head when it is raining is usually reinforced by the cessation of being rained on, Katz, J.L. (2007).

All these type of reinforcement raises the probability of reoccurrence of a behavior or strengthening behavior; the disparity lies to whether events reinforcement is positive reinforcement (applied) or negative reinforcement ( avoided or removed). Extinction and punishment facilitates weakening of behavior or lowers the possibility of occurrence of behavior, through the use of an aversive events or stimulus (punishment through contingent stimulation or positive punishment), desirable stimulus removal (punishment by contingent withdrawal or negative punishment). There was also a trial by Skinner to understand the use of his theory within the widest context of behavior the way it is used in living organisms like natural selection, Sagal, P.T. (1981).


Cumulative recorder

It is an instrument which is being used to record behavior automatically in terms of graphic. Before, it was having graphing mechanism that was made up of rotating drum paper, having a marking needle. The starting of the needle is from the bottom of the page then the drum is going to turn horizontally the role of the paper. Every response will have an impact of making the marking needle to move along the paper a single tick vertically. Because of this, the rate of response becomes capable of being calculated through getting at a particular point, the slope of the graph. Like rate of response which regular was going to make the needle to vertically move at a regular rate, causing a rise in straight diagonal line towards the right? A rate of response which is accelerating or decelerating was to result to a curve. A powerful analytic tool is being provided by the cumulative recorder for studying schedules of reinforcement.

Operant conditioning chamber

When B.F. Skinner was still at the University of Minnesota, he came up with operant conditioning chamber which was to be used to measure organisms' responses, more so to pigeons and rats, plus their interaction with the environment which is orderly. Such device was one of the lifelong ability of inventing devices which are useful including childhood whimsical devices to the cumulative recorder used to measure the organisms' response rate within an operant chamber.

Teaching machine

This was a mechanical device used to carry out curriculum of programmed instruction. It was made of a question list plus mechanism of responding to them by the learner. In any case a learner delivers a correct response, there will be a reward.

Pigeon-guided missile

In order for U.S. Navy to be victorious against the German Bismarck class battleships, they needed effective weapons. Even though there was existence of TV technology and missile, the primitive guidance system size which was presented made every weapon to be ineffective. Pigeon project proved to be potentially a highly effective and simple solution; however, as much as it was demonstrated effectively, it was left after many conventional solutions could be found. The emphasis of the project was to separate the nose cone of a missile to three compartments, then a pigeon was to encase in them.

Every compartment applied a lens in order to project whatever image in front of missile into the screen. Through pecking of the pigeon towards the object, the missile was to be directed. From this, a suggestion was given by Skinner that pigeons were behaving in a manner that depicts that there was influence on the automatic mechanism with their "ritual" making the experiment to shed light on human behavior.

It can be described that such experiment demonstrates a kind of superstition. From the behaviors of the birds it is as if causal relation was existing between its behavior and food presentation, even though this relation does not exist. Human behavior has several analogies. Some rituals like for altering an individual's fortune at cards tend to be good. Particular link of accidents involving a ritual and outcome which is favorable suffice to establish as well as maintain behavior even though there are several unforced instances.

A bowler who has just release a ball towards the alley, yet still goes on to act in a manner that shows that he was controlling the ball by turning and twisting his arm as well as, shoulder forms a case among the point. Such behaviors do not have a real effect on the lack of an individual or a half way ball down the alley, the same way the food was to appear as always even if the pigeon would have acted or not.

Radical behaviorism

Radical behaviorism was a term used by Skinner to refer to his specific brand of behaviorism. Contrary to austere behaviorisms, private events are not accepted like perceptions, thinking and unseen emotions within a causal account of behavior of organisms. It can be said that whatever is being introspectively observed or felt is not just nonphysical world of mind, consciousness or mental life, but own body of observer. Though it did not signify that introspection is a form of psychological research or whatever is introspectively observed or felt are the behavior causes. Chiesa, M. (2004).

Due to an organism current structure, it behaves as the way it does, though majority of this has not been reached by introspection. Whatever we should believe in as per now is with genetic and environment histories of a person as affirmed by the methodological behaviorist. The things that are observed introspectively are particular products of collateral of such histories.

From this, main wrought by mentalism are being prepared. In any case whatever one does is characterize by whatever is taking place inside him, then investigation ends. This is due to the fact that individuals have been preoccupied with mental life as well as feelings for long, though is just currently when a more specific analysis of the environmental role has been shown. From being unaware of such role caused mental fictions and has been facilitated by practices which are explanatory that had been given rise to. This explanation indicates that methodology stance tend to be a reaction and predates the recent advancement level, where mental structures is capable to be observed in operational through technologies like functional MRI.

Verbal Behavior

At Harvard, Skinner was challenged by Alfred North Whitehead at the event of casual discussion to give an explanation to piece of verbal behavior which was provided randomly. He tried extending his new functional, inductive, approach which was existing at that time to complexity verbal behavior of human. He developed a work which appeared to be culmination from the book of "Verbal Behavior" lectures of William James over two decades. However Noam Chomsky tended to be greatly critical of verbal behavior, he provided…[continue]

Cite This Essay:

"Starting From 19th Century Psychology School Of" (2011, August 06) Retrieved October 25, 2016, from

"Starting From 19th Century Psychology School Of" 06 August 2011. Web.25 October. 2016. <>

"Starting From 19th Century Psychology School Of", 06 August 2011, Accessed.25 October. 2016,

Other Documents Pertaining To This Topic

  • Social Psychology Bringing it All Together

    Social psychology is a very broad field that takes in the many varieties of group dynamics, perceptions and interactions. Its origins date back to the late-19th Century, but it really became a major field during and after the Second World War, in order to explain phenomena like aggression, obedience, stereotypes, mass propaganda, conformity, and attribution of positive or negative characteristics to other groups. Among the most famous social psychological studies

  • Clinical Psychology

    Dream Content as a Therapeutic Approach: Ego Gratification vs. Repressed Feelings An Abstract of a Dissertation This study sets out to determine how dreams can be used in a therapeutic environment to discuss feelings from a dream, and how the therapist should engage the patient to discuss them to reveal the relevance of those feelings, in their present, waking life. It also discusses the meaning of repetitious dreams, how medication affects the

  • Impact of School Culture on School Safety

    School Culture on School Safety Many studies have been done on safety in schools. Likewise, many studies have been done on the culture of various schools. Unfortunately, there has not been significant research on a link between the two. This is not to say that these kinds of studies have not been done, but rather that there has not been enough of them. Many of the studies that have been

  • REM Sleep and Dreaming Last

    However, things have advanced. With better technology, we can monitor the brain's activity while in REM. Certainly, one thing is certain: with out sleep there is no life. Without sleep, body temperature, eating, infection prevention, and basic brain functioning suffer. In terms of survival, where do dreams fit in? Researchers argue that the continuation of a complex brain process such as REM sleep indicates serves an important function for the

  • Adolescent Suicide Integration of CBT

    All too often, these adolescents end up taking their own lives when their depression gets too painful for them and they have not received the help that they need. Even the medications that are designed to help them get through the depression can sometimes make things worse, as various medications for depression and anxiety carry a risk of suicide when people are just starting or just getting off of

  • Knowledge Concerning Ethical Issues Involved

    100). Much of the focus of personnel selection using psychological testing was on new troops enlisting in the military during two world wars and the explosive growth of the private sector thereafter (Scroggins et al., 2008). Psychological testing for personnel selection purposes, though, faded into disfavor during the 1960s, but it continues to be used by human resource practitioners today. In this regard, Scroggins and his colleagues advise, "Many

  • Globalization and Innovations in Telecommunications

    Chapter 2: Review of Related Literature Chapter Introduction This chapter provides a review of the literature concerning hypnosis, Eastern Meditation, Chi Kung, and Nei Kung and how these methods are used to treat various ailments and improve physical and mental functioning. A summary of the review concludes the chapter. Hypnosis In his study, "Cognitive Hypnotherapy in the Management of Pain," Dowd (2001) reports that, "Several theories have been proposed to account for the effect of

Read Full Essay
Copyright 2016 . All Rights Reserved