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There is an initial purchase of sound field equipment and some installation and in-service costs which are stated to be negotiable. (Ray, 1995; paraphrased)
III. Computers in the Classroom and Deaf Learners
The government is presently making a dedicated effort to put computers into place in every classroom throughout America however in regards to learners who are deaf technological solutions have appeared slowly however, it has been indicated in online science and mathematics studies that computer technology is promising for learners who are deaf. In what was a metasynthesis of 287 studies, the work of Braden and Shaw (1987) report that "the degree of success with computer-assisted instruction was inversely related to methodological rigor." Technology in the classroom for deaf learners may include use of:
(1) closed-captioning; and/or
(2) Real-time captioning. (National Science Foundation, 2009)
Study findings appear to indicate that deaf students are inherently more rigid in their manner of thinking and while deaf learners are equal in cognitive abilities to learners who are not deaf, the deaf learners tend to experience cognitive and metacognitive skill delays. Virtual reality has been stated in the work of Passig and Eden (2000) to be promising toward engaging the deaf learner in the learning process and specifically in bridging abstract learning concepts and concrete studies. (National Science Foundation, 2009, paraphrased)
IV. C-Print Pro
C-Print is another tool that can be used in the classroom environment in order to engage deaf learners in the learning process. C-Print is somewhat similar to the tool of a court reporter in that the captionists produces the information spoken in a text application specifically C-Print Pro-through typing the information in however, there are reduced keystrokes in this program just as the tool used by the court reporter. Text is displayed through C-Print Pro-to multiple or single learners and may be presented via computers or display monitors. Note-taking tools have been added to C-Print Pro-which enhances the learning experience for the deaf learner.
V. Deaf Students and Self-Efficacy
Self-efficacy is the individual's beliefs in their own capacity for organization and execution of action needed to negotiate situations. Albert Bandura (1986) suggested that the stronger the individual's belief in their abilities to complete a task the better the ultimate end result. Self-esteem is very much akin to self-efficacy in terms of the meaning vested in self-efficacy and these factors serve to provide the student who is deaf or who has another disability with needed motivation to push toward higher levels of learning and ultimately toward cognitive thought processes in their learning. According to Lang (nd) "It is critically important that deaf people be empowered to access and utilize distance learning and related technologies on the same schedule and time table as the rest of society."
Summary & Conclusion
Assistive technology in the classroom enables students with disabilities and for the purpose of this brief study, students who are deaf to participate, interact, and become engaged in their education as well as providing these students with the necessary motivation to learn and through use of AT allows these students to develop their own sense of self-efficacy as it pertains to their acquisition of education and ultimately in terms of their future goals and attainments. The technology used for assisting students with disabilities such as the deaf learner assistive technology reviewed in this study is only as good as the instructor's knowledge of their use and application however, it is important that today's educators be trained and well-informed in the area of assistive technology because both students and teachers stand to benefit greatly from use of AT in the classroom.
Ray, Helen (1995) Mainstream Amplification Resource Room Study (MARRs) (1995) Educational Programs that Work. Online available at: http://www.ed.gov/pubs/EPTW/eptw12/eptw12d.html
How Does C-Print Work? (2009) National Technical Institute for the Deaf -- Rochester Institute of Technology. Speech to Text System. Online available at: http://www.ntid.rit.edu/cprint/how_cprint.php
Technology in the Classroom (2009) National Science Foundation. COMETS. 02 Oct 2002. Online available at: http://www.rit.edu/ntid/msse/technologyinclassunit.htm#captions
Bandura A. (1986) Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory.
Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Lang, Harry G. (nd) Science Education for Deaf Students: Priorities for Research and Instructional Development. Department of Research and Teacher Education -- National Institute for the Deaf. Rochester NY. Online available at: http://rasem.nmsu.edu/Pdfs/symposium/LANGrasemwhitepaper.pdf[continue]
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