Television Exposure in Pre-School Children essay

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There was also significant risk of increased attention problems associated with watching nonviolent television for the same age group, but no risk was associated with viewing educational programming. Older children ages 4 and 5 showed no increased risk five years later for attention problems from watching violent or non-violent programs. This second study was based on data collected from parents of 933 children and shows that the effect of violent television content on attention problems is much higher than previously estimated when program content was not identified." (Seattle Children's Hospital Research Institute, 2008)

The work of Josephson (2005) entitled: "Television Violence a Review of the Effects on Children of Different Ages" states that children at the preschool age, or between three and five years of age "...begin watching television with an "exploration" approach. They actively search for meaning in the content, but are still especially attracted to vivid production features, such as rapid character movement, rapid changes of scene, and intense or unexpected sights and sounds. Because television violence is accompanied by vivid production features, preschoolers are predisposed to seek out and pay attention to violence - particularly cartoon violence. It is not the violence itself that makes the cartoons attractive to preschoolers, but the accompanying vivid production features. With this preference for cartoons, preschoolers are being exposed to a large number of violent acts in their viewing day. Moreover, they are unlikely to be able to put the violence in context, they are likely to miss any subtlety conveyed mitigating information concerning motivation and consequences. Preschoolers behave more aggressively than usual in their play after watching any high-action exciting television content, but especially after watching violent television." (Josephson, 2005)

March 2007 report published by Reuters News entitled: "Screen Violence Tied to Boy's Aggression: Study" relates that boys in the range of ages 2 to 5 "who viewed an hour of on-screen violence a day increased their chances of being overly aggressive later in childhood, but the association was not seen in girls..." (Reuters, 2007) This study reports that: "...the association between violent programming and overly aggressive behavior was not found among the 146 girls in the study, who tended to watch more educational and nonviolent shows than the boys." (Reuters, 2007)

It is related in the work entitled: "Television Viewing and Aggression: Some Alternative Perspectives" "The effect of media violence on behavior is not only an interesting psychological question but is also a relevant public policy and public health issue. Although many studies have been conducted examining the link between violence on TV and aggressive behavior, most of these studies have overlooked several other potentially significant factors, including the dramatic context of the violence and the type of violence depicted as well as the race and ethnicity of the viewers." (Reuters, 2007) Findings are related after the conduction of a study reported in "Perspective on Psychological Science" journal in September 2008 that a correlation was found to exist "between watching violent TV and lower academic performance in African-American males..." (Reuters, 2007)

It is related that the data in this study "raise the possibility that processes competing with or overriding the aggression stimulating or aggression modeling effects of viewing violence on television may be more salient for African-American males." For example, viewing TV shows where violent behavior is punished may inhibit feelings of aggression to a greater degree in African-American males. In any case, additional research is required to assess the effects on African-American males of viewing TV aggression." (Reuters, 2007) it is suggested in this study that in studying "the possibility that processes competing with or overriding the aggression stimulating or aggression modeling effects of viewing violence on television may be more salient for African-American males." For example, viewing TV shows where violent behavior is punished may inhibit feelings of aggression to a greater degree in African-American males. In any case, additional research is required to assess the effects on African-American males of viewing TV aggression." (Reuters, 2007)

The work of Perez-Ortiz entitled: "Television as an Agency of Socialization" states that a major theory in the study of television is that of social organization theory which holds that as the group "develops through the interaction and socialization of its members, a series of events are repeated and transmitted from generation to generation. Those events, that can be divided into norms, rules, ranking and sanctions, are the driving motives for the actions of each individual within the social group. Therefore, before the individual takes the initiative towards an action, he or she will be comparing his or her actions to the ones of the fellow members of the group.. It has been proved that young viewers internalize norms, role definitions and other understandings of social organization from what they see on TV screens and mainly through the representation of stereotypes of recognizable portrayals of stable patterns of group life." (2002)

SUMMARY & CONCLUSION

Findings in this study include that boys ages two to five who had viewed one or more hours of television violence each day were at an increased risk for being aggressive later in childhood however, this link to media television violence and later aggressive behavior was not found to be present in girls. Additionally this study has found that African-American males watching violent television were also found to have lower academic achievement and lower grades. Findings include that television shows inclusive of violent punishment appears to "inhibit feelings of aggression to a greater degree in African-American males." (Reuters, 2007)

It is related that the data in this study "raise the possibility that processes competing with or overriding the aggression stimulating or aggression modeling effects of viewing violence on television may be more salient for African-American males." For example, viewing TV shows where violent behavior is punished may inhibit feelings of aggression to a greater degree in African-American males. In any case, additional research is required to assess the effects on African-American males of viewing TV aggression." (Reuters, 2007) it is suggested in this study that in studying "the possibility that processes competing with or overriding the aggression stimulating or aggression modeling effects of viewing violence on television may be more salient for African-American males." (Reuters, 2007)

For example, viewing TV shows where violent behavior is punished may inhibit feelings of aggression to a greater degree in African-American males. In any case, additional research is required to assess the effects on African-American males of viewing TV aggression." (Reuters, 2007) There is a great deal yet misunderstood concerning television violence viewing in children who are preschool age however, it does appear that viewing television violence is more likely to result in male children developing aggressiveness than the risk for females developing aggressive behavior.

Recommendations for future research include the recommendation that more study be undertaken to understand why male children appear to be more likely to develop aggressive behavior upon viewing televised media violence than are females.

Bibliography

Reebye, Pratibha (2005) Aggression During Early Years - Infancy and Preschool. T h e C. A n a d I a n C. h I l d a n d a d o l e s c e n t P. s y c h I a t r y R. e v I e w F. e b r u a r y 2-0 0-5 (1-4): 1. Online available at http://www.irm-systems.com/onottaca/doc.nsf/files/B5699D7CBA111CF48725712D00526DF5/$file/Feb05AggressionDuringEarlyYears.pdf

Watching Violent TV at Pre-School Age Linked to Aggression in Young Boys (2008) Seattle Children's Hospital Research Institute, 2008. Online available at http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/87763.php

Josephson, W.L. (2005) Television Violence: A Review of the Effects on Children of Different Ages. National Clearinghouse on Family Violence. Online available at http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/ncfv-cnivf/familyviolence/html/nfntseffevage_e.html.

Screen Violence Tied to Boys' Aggression: Study (2007) Reuters News. 5 Nov 2007. Online available at http://www.reuters.com/article/healthNews/idUSN0460670820071105

Television viewing and aggression: Some alternative perspectives (2008) Reuters News 1 Oct 2008. Online available at http://www.reuters.com/article/blogBurst/health?type=healthNews&w1=B7ovpm21IaDoL40ZFnNfGe&w2=B9QtAZ2UCcOq5iPRJnVhIQk&src=blogBurst_healthNews&bbPostId=Cz1f258jRerSxB7uaim0C4wkPAWBCkSVj5qOCz4i9t5fSo6t4&bbParentWidgetId=B9QtAZ2UCcOq5iPRJnVhIQk

Perez-Ortiz, PJ (2002) Television as an Agency of Socialization. 2002 March. Online available at http://www.aber.ac.uk/media/Students/pjp0101.html[continue]

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