Terrorism Assess the Likelihood of Term Paper
- Length: 12 pages
- Subject: Terrorism
- Type: Term Paper
- Paper: #78505224
Excerpt from Term Paper :
They are assured to acquire attention of the media, provided right ascription of the support of the occurrence. Further, a good protection against these dangers is very hard and costly; it will continue to be as such. A lot of the know-how linked with the buildup of the CBRN weapons-particularly chemical and biological agents possess genuine use in civilians and are categorized as twofold use. The widespread reach of this know-how, together with the comparative effortlessness of manufacturing several chemical or biological agents, renders them alluring to terrorist gangs aiming to unleash fear or causing huge number of fatalities. Terrorists have observed the strong psychological effect brought about by the current anthrax incidents in our nation of late that produces their importance to go up. Jessica Stern reasons that vengeance, spell of fear, revenge, motivational alterations, increase and accessibility, and superior indulgence of the manner in which to build up and use CBRN weapons will soon result in their extended use; to her, threat is the tool of the terrorist for attaining control, and for that cause CBRN weapons are smart for instantaneous utilization.
The objectives that lead a group to resort to embark upon the CBRN warfare include the following: the organization exhibits their enthusiasm to involve in high risks in its warfare; the organization that does not look upon the violence as a mode of reforming or preserving a prevailing political system, rather completely destroying such a system exerting mass casualties; the unstructured system that the group considered conducive for CBRN warfare. Bruce Hoffman, the expert in terrorism, opined the pious groups are the most probable candidates to carryout CBRN terrorism since they are activists instantly and constituents engaged in an activity that they visualize as the total war. Moreover, the terrorist acts are implemented for their own audience or constituency. In this way the regulations on catastrophic violence, exerted upon the secular terrorist that desire to appeal to a larger audience are not appropriate for the pious terrorist. In terms of the significant factors of motivation, the leaders those are prone to resort to CBRN warfare are propelled by adequate power to propel their groups into the international arena as technological destroyers and menaces of the first order of magnitude.
In order to attain the capability for initiating the CBRN warfare, some of the present day terrorist leader particularly in al Qaeda, are seen to be more highly educated, sophisticated and ambitious rather than their predecessors more particularly in the technological, engineering and scientific realms. Such educational and professional settings assist them in carrying out their missions with more intensity of sophistication, systematization, innovation and lethal in comparison to the previous acts of terrorism. The accelerators and triggers are the most probable contextual factors or 'circumstances' to induce a group to use CBRN. In the perspective of CBRN, accelerators are taken to be the technical enablers that assist in an organization with the provision of enough scope to acquire CBRN weapons and devices. The illustrations may incorporate the successful deployment of experts on CBRN associated skills, accessibility to the CBRN agents, weapons, devices through members those are students, research scientists, engineers, successful identification of the biological precursor agents, like the Ebola virus success in acquiring CBRN devices and acquisition of markets through foreign black and grey markets.
The abrupt events are regarded as the activations that rush the implementation of the plans by the organization to resort to CBRN warfare. The illustrations of activation may incorporate a delicate sense of imminent threat. Thus in a propaganda of the group references are made on the decisions to use extremely destructive means and devices that the enemy is designing to use against it. It is evident in the pronouncements of an organization advocating a millenarian, apocalyptic or messianic ideology about the onset of the millennia or messiah that the violence is resorted to make the arrival of the new millennium or the arrival of a messiah quicker. Extreme government retribution or attack brings a group to become desperately carry out maintaining its independent existence with the resort to CBRN warfare as the only remaining alternative in its view.
4) Briefing national policy makers, list the principal terrorist threats in terms of groups or specific operations
The struggle against terrorism in all its types and safeguarding against the assaults of the range of potential weaponry terrorists are considered to be a matter of great concern for the U.S. governments. Taking into consideration the empirical significance of the lenient environments in making available the technical capacity essential for terrorist groups to search and utilize unconventional weapons, the part played by states is considered crucial. Provoked by political or religious values, slackly affiliated rebels, may cause the most insistent danger to the United States. Sunni Islamic extremists, like Osama bin Laden and persons affiliated with his Al-Qaeda organization have confirmed an eagerness and capacity to perform attacks resulting in major fatalities and demolition against U.S. citizens, services, and interests, as confirmed by the August 1998 bombings of U.S. Embassies in East Africa. Al-Qaeda is a well structured and sponsored criminal network comprised of planned, hierarchical cells in many countries around the world. The potentialities of Al Qaeda threat was evident from the September 11 assaults and the sequential attacks of Al Qaeda or Al Qaeda associates ranging from Bali to Mombassa, and Riyadh to Casablanca.
But the warning from Al-Qaeda is only a fraction of the overall threat from the radical international jihad movement. In this movement there are many people from different nationalities, ethnic groups, tribes, races and terrorist group members who work together in support of extremist Sunni goals. The elimination of U.S. military forces from the Persian Gulf area, mainly from Saudi Arabia, is the main aim of the Sunni. The only common aspect among these varied individuals is their loyalty to the radial international jihad movement, which includes a radicalized philosophy and program for endorsing the use of violence against the 'enemies of Islam' in order to depose all governments which are not ruled by Sharia, or conservative Islamic law. A chief deliberate aim of this movement is the setting up and execution of comprehensive, prestigious, high-casualty terrorist attacks against U.S. interests and citizens and those of our associates, globally.
The second type of international terrorist threat is made up of proper terrorist organizations. These self-governing, international organizations have their own infrastructures, workforce, monetary preparations, and training amenities. These organizations are competent of preparing and increasing terrorist movements on a global basis. These organizations preserve operations and support networks in the United States. For instance, extremist groups like the Palestinian Hamas, the Irish Republican Army, the Egyptian Al-Gama Al-Islamiyya, and the Lebanese Hizballah have a company in the United States whose associates are mainly occupied in fund-raising, employing, and low-level intelligence collection. The third group of the international terrorist warning is involved of state sponsors of terrorism, or countries that observe terrorism as a means of foreign policy. Currently, the Department of State has listed seven countries as state sponsors of terrorism: Iran, Iraq, Sudan, Libya, Syria, Cuba, and North Korea. Out of these, Iran poses the utmost terrorist threat to the United States.
The present domestic terrorist threat mainly comes from right-wing extremist groups, left wing and Puerto Rican extremist groups, and special interest extremists. Usually the fight-wing terrorist groups stick on to the ideology of racial supremacy and embrace antigovernment, anti-regulatory beliefs. On the national level, formal right wing abhor groups, such as World Church of the Creator -WCOTC and the Aryan Nations, characterize an enduring terrorist threat. Left-wings groups, the second group of domestic terrorists, usually confess a revolutionary socialist policy and consider themselves as defenders of the people against the brutal results of capitalism and imperialism. They seek to bring alteration in the United States through revolution rather than through the customary political process. The conventional right wing and left wing terrorism vary from special interest terrorism and the special interest groups try to solve definite issues, rather than cause more extensive political change. Special interest extremists carry on to do their acts of politically motivated violence to influence section of society, including, the ordinary people, to change their outlook about matters regarded as essential to their causes.
5) Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the intelligence system for dealing with terrorism.
In struggling with international terrorism, the role played by over 40 separate departments, agencies and bureaus within the U.S. Government, like State Department, Department of Defense, CIA, FBI and the Department of Justice, are considered very crucial. Other less significant agencies like Department of Transportation, Office of Management and Budget, General Accounting Office, and Treasury Department. Irrespective of the fact that all departments and agencies associated with such combating measures in the process depends upon varied definitions of terrorism, the leading and participating agencies visualize the definition of others and therefore have the…