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theories human development factors influence development. write Erickson Psychosocial theory, Freudian Psychosexual theory small piece, Maslow theory Carl Rogers Piaget theory. make involve FACTORS .
Psychoanalytic theory has made it possible for society to gain a more complex understanding of human behavior and of concepts that influence individuals in wanting to perform particular acts. Some of the most notable psychoanalysts devised a series of theories meant to assist the social order in understanding stages of development and the effect that they have on people as they grow. Psychoanalytic theory was one of the principal concepts fueling the world of psychology during the twentieth century and this is reflected by the vast amount of theories that have been created with regard to it. Individuals like Freud, Erikson, and Maslow got actively involved in improving the domain and are largely responsible for the way that the contemporary society understands people. Through focusing on the concept of development, these individuals managed to comprehend the exact phases that humans experience as they mature.
Freud is the most influential individual in psychoanalysis and he probably collaborated with the biggest names in the field throughout his life. Even with this, the fact that he was very rigid with regard to his theories made it difficult and almost impossible for other people working in the domain to be able to cooperate with the man. While "the psychoanalytical theory of Freud and the cognitive theory of Piaget probably represent the most widely known stage theories in developmental psychology and are reviewed and discussed in virtually all texts on child development" (Sugarman 77), people should also focus on psychoanalysts that have been provided with lesser attention when considering developmental psychology. Piaget and Freud mostly focused on the pre-adult years of people's lives and this makes it difficult for one to address the complete concept of developmental psychology from their perspective. Despite that they hesitated to produce sufficient theories concerning adult years, it is essential for one to be acquainted with their thinking when considering the field.
Freud largely considered "that human behavior is largely governed by instinctual, unconscious, and irrational forces within the individual" (Sugarman 77). From his perspective, the human is an egoist organism that governs itself in accordance with internal and external influences. Also, Freud considered that the libido was one of the most important factors that induce particular states in individuals. The Austrian psychoanalyst dedicated the largest part of his career to improving his perception of the human mind and its development. He proposed three personality structures as being responsible for various attitudes that individuals employ through their lives. The id is present individual from the moment when he or she is born, is unconscious, and contains all instincts (with the one concerning sex being the most dominant). The ego typically emerges from the age of two until the age of five, is more rational, and influences the individual in acknowledging the outside world and the efforts that he or she needs to make in order to satisfy the ego while living in accordance with legislations imposed by the external world. The superego is responsible for triggering the need for perfection and it becomes to influence the individual near the age of six or seven "as the child starts adopting parental and cultural values and mores" (Sugarman 78).
From Freud's perspective the three structures assisting individuals in their development occur successively and constantly influence people in trying to find a middle ground that would make them possible for them to feel satisfied with themselves. While later psychologists considered that Freud was partly correct in his assumptions, he also received significant criticism for his work, considering that it put across revolutionary ideas (Sugarman 80).
Whereas Freud's ideas have been appreciated by a worldwide audience, there have also been individuals who considered that he was wrong in some cases.
For example, Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow believed that Freud committed an error when he claimed that individuals are ruled by unconscious powers. The two were "interested in psychological needs for love, self-esteem, belonging, self-expression, creativity, and spirituality" (Coon & Mitterer 25). Humanists generally believe that everyone has potential and that it would be wrong to associate particular traits to a certain individual simply because he or she experienced extraordinary events throughout his or her life.
Jean Piaget is also recognized for the extensive work that he produced in the field of developmental psychology. He promoted the fact that cognitive development is composed out of four phases and the last stage begins when the individual is approximately eleven years old. The first stage lasts through the person's first two years of life and regards his or her use of sensory and motor abilities. The second stage lasts from the moment when the child starts to comprehend "internal representations of objects" (Sugarman 81) and "develops the ability to use symbols (for example, mental images of objects) and, as language develops, verbal representations of objects and events" (Sugarman 81). Piaget fourth stage of cognitive development begins when the individual is approximately six years old and lasts until he or she reaches the age of eleven or twelve. The person now learns the rule of "conservation, by decentration, and by seriation" (Sugarman 81). Children are able to put across rational thinking at this stage but are very rigid in their thinking.
The final stage in Piaget's stages of cognitive development is the formal operational stage. It is believed to begin at a certain moment between the ages of eleven and sixteen and makes it possible for individuals to gain a more complex understanding of the world. Children become less rigid, start to comprehend abstract thought, and actually associate it with logical thinking.
Piaget believed that all individuals experience processes of assimilation and accommodation as they develop and that these processes provide them with the opportunity to evolve. Through assimilation one can use relations that he or she is familiar with in order to be able to succeed in conditions that he or she is not familiar with. Accommodation refers to the moment when the individual uses existing thoughts and adapts them with the purpose of having them be in accordance with new concepts (Coon & Mitterer 97).
In contrast to psychologists who produced materials in regard to the early stages of development of a person's life, Erik Erikson believed that the development process is never finished and that an individual continues to evolve throughout his or her life. The German psychologist created a theory of psychosocial development that is comprised out of eight stages. From his perspective, the social order provides individuals with new tasks as they develop and they need to be able to change rapidly in order to experience success through their lives. "Each new demand provokes an emotional crisis, the successful resolution of which leads to the development of a new "virtue" or "vital strength" (Sugarman 87).
In spite of the fact that society is constantly changing, Erikson promoted the belief that all people experience ordered stages through their lives and that it is impossible for an event to randomly happen during a person's development. Even with this, people develop in accordance with how well they manage to overcome each crisis that they encounter. For example, the first stage provides individuals with the opportunity to become trustful or distrustful. The second stage can influence them in becoming autonomous or in becoming ashamed with their personae and have doubts concerning their ability to function effectively in particular situations.
While each crisis provides people with the chance to ascend or descend, all individuals have the opportunity to address crisis that they did not manage to overcome in the past and actually experience success in the present. "Thus, whilst failure to deal adequately with a task during its period of ascendancy is damaging to the ego's development, this damage is not entirely irrevocable" (Sugarman 88).
Erikson believed that one of the simplest methods of observing how society as a whole experiences development would be to look at social institutions. These bodies were created with the purpose of assisting individuals in experiencing progress by making as little errors as possible. From the German philosopher's point-of-view, psychosocial development takes place as an individual goes through a series of crisis and overcomes each of them as well as he or she can, even with the fact that he or she fails to succeed in particular circumstances.
The fifth stage in Erikson's stage of psychosocial development is probably one of the most renowned ideas in the field. It deals with the concept of identity in contrast with role confusion. Adolescents are typically the ones who experience this stage and they experience significant problems as they discover that many of the ideas that they believed in previous years are likely to be false. One of the most intriguing concepts about this stage is that individuals are probable to have to face stages that they were previously able to overcome. People develop a stronger sense of…[continue]
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