Traumatic Brain Injuries Research Paper

Download this Research Paper in word format (.doc)

Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formatting

Excerpt from Research Paper:

patients diagnosed with TBI cope better with counseling and outreach programs when dealing with new or abnormal behaviors?

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) may result in social and emotional defects (such as delayed word recall) that result in frustrating and embarrassing moments for the victim. Of all counseling and intervention programs, rehabilitation therapy (CRT) is the one that is commonly used and, therefore, this literature review will conduct a meta-analytic search (focusing on quantitative studies within the last five years) in order to assess the efficacy of CRT in helping TBI individuals with their social and emotional skills and perceptions.

The essay identified and reviewed seven randomized trials of language, emotional and social communication cognitive rehabilitation. Inclusion terms were that participants had to possess sufficient cognitive capacity to be included in a group and impairment in emotional and social skills was evidenced either by a questionnaire or by the clinician's reference. All of the studies were on chronic and moderately severe TBI.

Description of studies

Bornhofen and McDonald (2008a; 2008b) reported two trials that dealt with emotion deficits. Their program used group activities as well as home assignment and journal notation to teach skills for emotion perception. Sessions were 25 hours held over 8 weeks. The 12 participants were randomly recruited either to treatment or to a waitlist group. Researchers used facial expression (naming and matching), The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT), and psycho-social reintegration as studies of outcome. TASIT showed significant results when individuals were tested immediately post treatment, with minimal results between intervention group and control on others. More significant results on all measures of intervention were however seen when follow up tests were taken a month later.

Bornhofen and McDonald (2008b) repeated their trial in order to identify the effective components of the program and see which of the counseling / treatment aspects were most responsible for improvement. They used three groups: self-instruction training, errorless strategy, and a waitlist. There were 25 hours across 10 weeks and a therapist worked with each group. The 18 participants were randomized across the three groups, and outcome measures included facial expression recognition, facial expression naming and matching, psycho-social reintegration, and depression and anxiety, as well as relative ratings of adjustment, social performance, and psycho-social reintegration. Few differences showed between the different elements used in the programs for treatment.

McDonald et al. (2008) conducted a randomized trial of social emotion perception training and social behavior compared to a control group. Each was 48 hours. Group sessions focused on social behavior (2 hours) and emotion training (1 hour) and a third intervention was CBT (1 hour). Social behavior was measured by the Partner Directed Behavior Scale and the Personal Conversational Style Scale as well as the TASIT for anxiety and Katz Adjustment Scale. Apparently, the social behavior treatment program (using skills other than CBT) was more effective than the CBT prong.

Schwandt et al. (2012) investigated the efficacy of aerobic exercise intervention in reducing depression of TBI individuals and helping them cope with their emotion. The design was a 12-week aerobic exercise program that was composed of a single group; participants were tested both before and after the program. Participants were randomly selected from a group of patients who were recruited form an outpatient clinic and had some physical impairment. The 12 participants were at least 11 months post injury. Measures used were the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression; aerobic capacity (cycle ergometer, heart rate at reference resistance, perceived exertion); Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and program perception (survey). The participant's observation of effect of program was noted and summarized. Descriptive statistics also collated and described comparison between pre- and post -- results. Outcome showed significant increase in self-esteem, as well as enhanced skill in physical movements and reduction of depression. There were no adverse effects. Researchers concluded that an aerobic program is extremely helpful for TBI patients. Further research needs to be conducted on intensity, frequency, and duration of such a program.

Chard et al. (2011) used a far larger group -- 42 participants from a Veterans Administration residential program to test for the efficacy of psychoeducational activities and CBT on comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and TBI. The participants were randomly selected between the two control groups. Each program…[continue]

Cite This Research Paper:

"Traumatic Brain Injuries" (2012, November 09) Retrieved December 10, 2016, from

"Traumatic Brain Injuries" 09 November 2012. Web.10 December. 2016. <>

"Traumatic Brain Injuries", 09 November 2012, Accessed.10 December. 2016,

Other Documents Pertaining To This Topic

  • Traumatic Brain Injury in Children

    Traumatic Brain Injury in Children Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been one of the primary public health problems under health concerns over several decades. Health statistics reveal that this problem has been common among the male adolescents, as well as the young adults under the age bracket of 15 to 24 years. Similarly, this disorder is common among the elderly people of both sexes under the age of 75 and above.

  • Traumatic Brain Injury Each New

    The soldiers who informed that their injury didn't include any altered mental status or the loss of consciousness worked as the reference group for all of the analyses (2008). Mild TBI was significantly correlated with psychiatric symptoms -- especially PTSD, and the correlation maintained its significance after combat experiences had been controlled for (Hoge et al. 2008). Over 40% of soldiers with injuries linked with loss of consciousness met the

  • TBI and PTSD

    Anthropologist working with the VA Definitions / Interests / Key Problems and Issues Previous Work Performed by Anthropologists in this Area The Employment Situation, Current Salaries and Opportunities for Advancement Bibliography of the most important books, chapters and articles Relevant professional organizations, ethics statements and newsletters Names / locations of PAs and others working in the content area locally and elsewhere. Relevant Laws and Regulations Relevant international / domestic organizations, private and public Other helpful information you think about

  • Mtbi and Depression Traumatic Brain Injury TBI

    MTBI and Depression Traumatic brain injury (TBI) occurs as a result of force to the skull or brain. The probability of receiving a TBI is increased if one is participates in a number of sports such as professional football in the National Football League (NFL) and in a number of vocations such being in the military. The results of a TBI include a number of cognitive and emotional symptoms (McCrea, 2008).

  • Brain Injury Resources in Kane

    One primary organization, the Brian Injury Association of America, has web resources that include general information on brain injuries, including causes and symptoms as well as national prevalence (BIAA 2010). The Brain Injury association also has state chapters, and the Association of Illinois' website contains some links to services and support groups, but the number listed is surprisingly small (BIAI 2010). Far more abundant in numerous different internet searches,

  • Traumatic Head Injury on Sexual

    Physical dysfunctions caused by traumatic brain injury which are not properly addressed, such as erectile dysfunction, can cause an extreme dip in male sexual frequency. Another way in which sexual function is affect by traumatic brain injury is through chemical changes caused by rain damage. Primary dysfunctions include hormonal changes which then result in sexual dysfunctions, (Aloni & Katz, 1999). Hormonal changes due to injury are experienced by both male

  • Cognitive Effects of Brain Injury and Disease

    Cognitive Effects of Brain Injury and Disease The care of patients with brain injury and diseases has improved substantially over the last thirty years. Nonetheless, the acute cognitive effects caused by brain injury are still a problem for the survivors. Such impairments are substantial contributors to functional disability after brain injury and reduce quality of life for affected persons and their families (Schultza, Cifub, McNameea, Nicholsb; Carneb, 2011). Accordingly, it is

Read Full Research Paper
Copyright 2016 . All Rights Reserved