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The Ministry of Women Affairs had been present always; however it was a waning organization under the military rule. In some of the states the Ministry of women affairs was headed by men, but ever since the initiation of the democratic era, the Commissions are presently made responsible to the Ministry of Women Affairs since they are functioning collaboratively with civil society functionaries. (Nigerian women fairing well)
Nigeria authorized the conclusion of all four United Nations World Conferences on Women since 1975 inclusive of the Nairobi Forward Looking Strategies - NFLS in 1985 and took part at the 1995 Beijing Fourth World Conference on Women and from then on dedicated herself to the encouragement of gender impartiality. A Women's Department in the Federal Capital Territory - FCT, Abuja was formed in the thirty-six States of the Federation for the intention of growing common grassroots' partaking in the execution of the Platform for Action - PFA. (Nigeria's Report on the Implementation of the Beijing Platform for Action and common wealth Plan of Action) Irrespective of the fact that the attempts are praiseworthy, they do not generate a concrete variation in the policy towards the participation of women in the process of decision-making. The Nigerian administration has however; left is hands open in frustration to the issue of the gender equity. Irrespective of the establishment of Ministry of Women Affairs and Social Development and their campaigns on gender-based issues and workshops for the political empowerment of women, the absence of a dedicated government policy to deal with the gender concerns effectively is being felt to achieve the desired result in this direction. There is lack of deliberate government policy to assimilate women in the process of decision-making. (Re: Women's political participation in Nigeria) the Commissions engaged on activities relating to women groups in consonance with the policy execution, approaches and chalking out plans and programs are finding themselves with the problem of dearth of funds that has a profound adverse impact on their activities. (Nigerian women fairing well)
Nigeria is a contributor to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights - ICESR, the Convention on the Rights of the Child - CRC, the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women - CEDAW and the African Charter for Human and People's Rights. These international agreements are yet to be included into the domestic laws. A summary of the present socio-political and legal condition in Nigeria reveals that the Government has not done its responsibility of the domestication of these agreements. Thus the major step should be the inclusion of the CRC and CEDAW in Nigerian domestic law. The unwillingness of the government in this regard has to a huge level hindered the full pleasure of women and girls of their globally accepted rights. (Actual Women Situation in Nigeria)
Women are however, optimistic to form non-governmental bodies and to source their own funds. This goes beyond the confirmation of the fact that the government is not capable of addressing the issue and indicates the significant contribution of the citizens whether as individuals or as members of an NGO in this regard. (Re: Women's political participation in Nigeria) the women groups are also not contented since the government still fails to fully implement the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women-CEDAW, the international treaty on women that the Nigeria has agreed to implement. The necessary implementation of this will definitely go a long way in struggling against all forms of violence against women. The lack of local laws to support these two declarations, are considered to be a major deficiency that the Nigerian women organizations are to challenge with in their search for their strengthening and struggle against the interruptions on the rights of women. Many developments have been attained ever since Beijing, however fundamentally, there is one yawning gap that is found absent that the Nigerian administration has not adopted locally the Beijing declaration. That is regarded as a major missing link since it is taken to be a portion of institutional mechanism categorically pointed out in the conference a decade ago. In the absence of such regulations, it is clear to be aware that there will be varied undulating impacts stemming from that missing link. (Nigerian women fairing well)
Alternatives advocated by international or local non-governmental organizations.
Women seem to have no adequate knowledge about themselves and specifically about their surroundings. As a consequence of such trends along with low level of education, women themselves disregard violence against the rights of women like the rites pertaining to widowhood and female genital mutilation. Such kind of traditional cultural experience is quite difficult to be parted with. However, the women organizations are watching, documenting, reporting and acting in respect of the naive women whose rights have been interfered. They have a set of linkage with non-governmental organizations that take care of the instances of violence against women liberty, simply requiring the women to report a case in such instances. The groups which are also struggling for a regional legislation on Nigerian women regularly publish instance of assault against women as more and more Nigerian women presently are aware that they have the right to bail a detained person and they are also eligible to become surety in the court. They are also aware of the existence of NGOs to be approached upon in case of the infringement of their rights. Such understanding prevails among women but it takes enough time for the people to suspend the loathsome practices and cultures that they are succumbed to since a long period of time. (Nigerian women fairing well)
Hence in Nigeria, presently more and more NGOs concentrate on the women associated concerns and the NGOs presently have progressively more women as members. During the last few years, the functioning of NGOs in Nigeria has enhanced largely so as to represent it to be omnipotent in respect of the issues. Many of the female members with the NGOs are seen to be at the forefront for bringing about political enlightenment, by conducting seminars, workshops etc. They are also propagating and advocating against the conventional rites and beliefs that hinder the all round progress of the women and projects focused on enhancing the economic stand of women. Seminars and Workshops particularly addressing the evils of gender discrimination concerns have also been conducted. (Women, the state and Reproductive Health issues in Nigeria)
The Nigerian NGO's Coalition - NNC noted anxiety about constant prejudice against women in the private sector, mainly with regard to the right to employment, promotion to higher professional positions, and in salary variation. There are believable reports that several businesses function with a 'get pregnant - get dismissed' policy. Women are not accepted in the formal sector but play a vigorous and critical role in the country's significant private economy. Though the number of women who work in the business sector rises every year, women do not get the same pay for the same work and usually find it difficult to get commercial recognition or to get tax deductions or discounts as heads of households. In general spinster women face many types of prejudice. (AFROL Gender Profiles: Nigeria)
The NGO's argue that there is definitely a requirement for increased education and training facilities for girls and women in Nigeria, for the total progress of the nation and to further their quality of life. Before this could take place, a significant program will be required to make policy-makers, parents, educators, employers, and others knowledgeable about the significance of girls and women's education. But it would be a tactical mistake to introduce programs only for the advancement of women. Women should be able to involve themselves actively in such programs, without considering them as a separate group. There is also a requirement for equality in employment levels and facilities for career women to promote them to pursue both career and family life. (Women and information technology)
My assessment of the level of success it has achieved or will likely achieve.
In the economic contexts the Nigerian women do not seem to have contributed so less, irrespective of the fact that a large chunk of their contributions lie in the informal sector. Besides, more and more Nigerian women presently holds significant economic and public positions like Managing Directors of Banks, Chief Executives of enterprises, Ministers of key sectors like Ministry of Finance, Budge and also heads some commissions. Presently, eight of women are presiding over the banks in the country. (Nigerian women fairing well) but silent forms of discrimination and stereotyping also continues in many enterprises, with the result that even women who are already in service are not always given the chance to show their importance. Most of the Nigerian women are still deprived of their right to…[continue]
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The effect on the poor was exacerbated during the 1980's by rising debt and falling average income. Whatever progress was made during the 1960's and 1970's was nullified by the crisis during the 1980's. Rising urban poverty then also resulted in a narrower gap between urban and rural income averages. The situation was somewhat remedied by lifting the wage freeze during 1988, and inflation abated in late 1989. Still,
To an average individual within the United States however, the relevance is reduced, with importance only for gathering general knowledge on the country. The jurisdiction of the analysis expands as far as the data is available and does not constitute intrusion on matters of national secrecy. 2. Review of Literature 2.1 Research Tools The primary tool to be used in the answering of the posed questions is that of conducting research. This
K. And the U.S. can both learn from these emerging nations and their dedication to improving the lives of their children. Brazil, for example, leads the E-9 countries in per-capita expenditures for young children (Levin 2005, p. 198). China has committed to the universalization of preschool education (children ages 3-6) in urban areas by 2015, to increasing enrollment in one-year programs in rural areas, and increasing overall enrollment in preschool education.
In most societies, FGM is considered a cultural tradition, which is often used as an argument for its continuation. Though a tremendous range of practices fall under the title of female genital mutilation, understanding what is involved in the process really helps one understand why it is internationally condemned as a violation of human rights. The most drastic type of female genital mutilation is infibulation. A standard infibulation process is
Ghana was ranked at 67.5 that depicts that the country is in the median range of being a failed state (FFP, ffp.statesindex.org). This ranking is significantly better as compared to other African countries but significant improvement is desired. Mounting demographic pressures and internal displacement of population of Ghana is within the medium range. Poverty index, part of the failed state index, is at 6.0 for Ghana that represents that
New Face of Development," Ronald Inglehart and Chrisitan Welzel's article, "How Development Leads to Democracy: What We Know About Modernization," and Jack Goldstone's article, "The New Population Bomb: The Four Megatrends That Will Change the World." Essentially, each of these articles takes varying approaches in chronicling the history of development and the impact that it will have on the future. The overarching goal that is found in synthesizing each
) Perhaps even more important to the current issues is the fact that the Ibrahim Index of African Governance, with ranks African governments on the ability of those governments to deliver needed goods to their people. This index ranks Ghana relatively high on human development and safety and security and human rights protections. Again, it is important to stress that such political assessments are also economic ones. The fact that Ghana ranks