Global Business International Reserves in Essay

Excerpt from Essay :

other intangible assets such as patents and management strength. Finally, those future earnings are discounted to arrive at a net present value. Interbrand discounts against current interest rates and also against the brand's overall risk profile to factor in brand strength. Considerations include market leadership, stability, and global reach -- or the ability to cross both geographic and cultural borders. The final result values the brand as a financial asset. BusinessWeek and Interbrand believe this figure comes closest to representing a brand's true economic worth. (Business Week, Aug, 2007 (

Among the top 100 brands the U.S. has the largest representation with a full 52 brands on the list. This is comparable to no other nation. The U.S. also boast the highest rankings in high tech brands, producing electronic support systems, like software and PCs and/or support functions for them, as well as food and beverage provider brands, while Japan and Germany have a greater representation among auto brands than other nations.

7. According to the Mercer Cost of Living Survey the top 10 cities in the cost of living index are as follows:

Rank March 2008 Rank March 2007 City Country Cost of living Index March 2008 Cost of living Index March 2007 1-1 Moscow Russia 142.4 134.4-2-4 Tokyo Japan 127.0 122.1-3-2 London UK 125.0 126.3-4-10 Oslo Norway 118.3 105.8-5-3 Seoul South Korea 117.7 122.4-6-5 Hong Kong China 117.6 119.4-7-6 Copenhagen Denmark 117.2 110.2-8-7 Geneva Switzerland 115.8 109.8-9-9 Zurich Switzerland 112.7 107.6-10-11 Milan Italy 111.3 104.4

Cost of living is an important factor in indicating the price that should be set in any given market for a product or service. The cost of living indicates the nature of the value of certain items, both essential and non-essential and then stresses the importance of the market on setting prices strategically and wisely, when entering or maintaining a product in any given market. In areas where cost of living is high and wages are low moderate or stagnant setting prices for superlative items or services or support services, for those needing to work long hours to maintain their home and lifestyle is essential. In areas where cost of living is low, it is not uncommon for wages to remain low but for prices to be set accordingly. Each aspect of the cost of living of a city or region is essential to the development of a strategic pricing analysis for any international market. To engender price competitiveness one must identify similar products and create a competitive pricing strategy, including initial findings on cost of living, which can include broad categories including some types of products or services, such as what is compiled by Mercer on a year by year basis. (Mercer's 2008 Cost of Living rankings (

8. According to Mercer HR consulting the quality of living of any given city is determined by several factors, and is based upon the quality of living for an immigrant i.e. expatriate of another nation from the outside looking in; the political and social environment (e.g. stability, crime, law enforcement, etc.), the economic environment (e.g. currency exchange regulations, banking services), socio-cultural environment (e.g. censorship, limitations on personal freedom), health and sanitation (e.g. medical supplies and services, infectious diseases, sewage, waste disposal, air pollution), schools and education (e.g. standard and availability of international schools), public services and transportation (e.g. electricity, water, public transport, traffic congestion), recreation (e.g. restaurants, theatres, cinemas, sports and leisure) consumer goods (e.g. availability of food/daily consumption items, cars), housing (e.g. housing, household appliances, furniture, maintenance services), and finally the natural environment (e.g. climate, record of natural disasters). The total number of factors, only some listed above include 39 key factors which are grouped according to the above categories and compared based on a baseline.

50 cities: Quality of living

Base City: New York, U.S. (=100)

Rank 2008 Rank 2007 City Country Index 2008 Index 2007 1-1 Zurich Switzerland 108-108.1-2-3 Vienna Austria 107.9 107.7-2-2 Geneva Switzerland 107.9 108.0-4-3 Vancouver Canada 107.6 107.7-5-5 Auckland New Zealand 107.3 107.3-6-5 Dusseldorf Germany 107.2 107.3-7-8 Munich Germany 107-106.9-7-7 Frankfurt Germany 107-107.1-9-9 Bern Switzerland 106.5 106.5-10 9 Sydney Australia 106.3 106.5-11-11 Copenhagen Denmark 106.2 106.2-12-12 Wellington New Zealand 105.8 105.8-13-13 Amsterdam the Netherlands 105.7 105.7-14-14 Brussels Belgium 105.4 105.6-15-15 Toronto Canada 105.3 105.4-16-16 Berlin Germany 105-105.2-17-17 Melbourne Australia 104.8 105.0-17-18 Luxembourg 104.8 104.8-19-18 Ottawa Canada 104.7 104.8-20-20 Stockholm Sweden 104.5 104.7-21-21 Perth Australia 104.3 104.5-22-22 Montreal Canada 104.2 104.3-23-23 Nurnberg Germany 104.1 104.2-24-26 Oslo Norway 103.7 103.5-25-27 Dublin Ireland 103.5 103.3-25-24 Calgary Canada 103.5 103.6-27-24 Hamburg Germany 103.4 103.6-28-27 Honolulu, HI United States 103.1 103.3-29-29 San Francisco, CA United States 103-103.2-29-30 Helsinki Finland 103-103.1-29-30 Adelaide Australia 103-103.1-32-34 Singapore 102.9 102.5-32-33 Paris France 102.9 102.7-34-32 Brisbane Australia 102.4 102.8-35-35 Tokyo Japan 102.2 102.3-36-36 Lyon France 101.9 101.9-37-36 Boston, MA United States 101.8 101.9-38-38 Yokohama Japan 101.6 101.7-38-39 London United Kingdom 101.6 101.2-40-40 Kobe Japan 100.9 101.0-41-49 Milan Italy 100.8-99.9-42-41 Barcelona Spain 100.6 100.6-43-42 Madrid Spain 100.5 100.5-44-44 Washington, DC United States 100.3 100.4-44-42 Osaka Japan 100.3 100.5-44-47 Lisbon Portugal 100.3 100.1-44-44 Chicago, IL United States 100.3 100.4-48-46 Portland, or United States 100.2 100.3-49-48 New York City, NY United States 100-100.0-50-49 Seattle, WA United States 99.8-99.9

Mercer Quality of Living Ranking 2008, (

Table 1 Indexes of Living Costs Abroad, January 2008 - Continued

Washington, D.C. = 100)

Country and City


Exchange Rate1







Per U.S.$






New Sol

Table 2. Quarters Allowances, January 2008

Exchange Rate

Annual Allowance by family status and salary range

Country and City






Less Than 51,739 to 81,093 and Unit

Per U.S.$



Australia: Melbourne





US Department of State Indexes Living Costs Abroad Quarters January 2008, (


BP Statistical Review of World Energy, 2008, retrieved 8, 15, 2008:

Business Week, Aug, 2007, retrieved 8, 15, 2008:

CIA World Factbook, 2008, retrieved 8, 15, 2008:

EarthTrends Country Profile Argentina 2007, retrieved 8, 15, 2008:

Mercer's 2008 Cost of Living rankings, retrieved 8, 15, 2008:

Mercer Quality of Living Ranking 2008, retrieved 8, 15, 2008:

UN World Population Prospects, 2006, retrieved 8, 15, 2008:

UNCTAD Handbook online, 2008, retrieved 8, 15, 2008:

US Department of Labor, 2008, retrieved 8, 15, 2008:

US Department of State Indexes Living Costs Abroad Quarters, January 2008, retrieved 8, 15, 2008:

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