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Department of Corrections for the state of California, there are approximately 160,000 individuals in jail in the state of California. (California Prison Growth 2003) The census shows that 9,797 of these individuals are women and 150,000 are men. (California Prison Growth 2003)There are several issues that make prison life in California particularly difficult for women. These issues concern vocational services, educational services, healthcare, and rehabilitation services. The purpose of this discussion is to review previous studies that have examined the disparity in the treatment of men and women in California's prisons.
Methodology-Secondary Data Analysis
One of the most significant issues facing female inmates in California and throughout the country is the issue of healthcare. The first study that we examined discussed the challenge of providing healthcare to California's female inmate population.
The report was published by the California Policy Research Center, University of California. The author of the article did not conduct the study.
Research Design and Procedure
The published report is a combination of various studies on the conditions facing female inmates in California's Corrections System. The research includes information gathered from filed complaints and interviews with prisoners. The study
Examines access to health care for women who are incarcerated in California state prisons, through quantitative and qualitative analysis of a large database of interviews, medical records, legal documents, and judicial reports assembled in conjunction with inmate complaints during the past four years. The report's recommendations compare the California correctional health care model with "best practice" models for health care delivery to offer an empirical foundation on which to base deliberations on correctional health options.
Description of Subjects and Setting
The study was instigated by the fact that 1269 complaints were filed by female inmates from 1994-1999. These complaints came from several of the state's correctional facilities including California Correctional Women's Facility, California Institution for Women, Valley State Prison for Women, and the Northern California Women's Facility. The report also explains that the study, "examined reports by the California Department of Health Services and the State Auditor, legal materials, and contemporary standards for medical care in prisons and jails. This research was supplemented with interviews with prisoners and health care specialists." (Stoller 2000)
The complaint covered a range of topics including insufficient access to needed medicines. This was particularly true among women with HIV / AIDS. Many of the inmates complained that they were not receiving the appropriate amounts of anti-viral medications which can reduce the length and quality of life for these inmates. (Stoller 2000)Many of the women also complained that there were misdiagnosed. Some of the inmates also complained that the health care that they received was detrimental. (Stoller 2000)
Rehab and social support
The research for this study was gathered through the use of secondary data analysis. The study that was used to carry out the research was published in the Journal of Addictions & Offender Counseling. The study was conducted by the author, Catherine Lemieux. The purpose of the study was to examine the differences in social support among female and male offenders in corrections facilities.
Research Design and Procedures
The data was retrieved through the use of a questionnaire survey which;
was administered to inmates over a 3-week period. A total of 101 surveys from 131 eligible inmates were completed, which resulted in an overall response rate of 76.3%. The response rates for ACCC, SAAP I, and SAAP II were 100%, 92.8%, and 67.4%, respectively. Most of the SAAP II non-participants were on work call when this survey was administered. No significant differences emerged between respondents and non-respondents when age and length of time in program were compared." (Lemieux, 2002)
Description of Subjects
The participants included male and female offenders who were enrolled in Substance Abuse Awareness Program Sheriff's Drug Farm (SAAP) and the Atlantic Correctional Community Center (ACCC).
SAAP is a program that consists of two phases. The first phase involves a drug education and counseling program and the second phase is a 4-12-month therapeutic community program which focuses on preventing relapses. ACCC is a program designed for incarcerated women struggling with drug abuse.
The questionnaire was designed in a fashion that measured independent and dependent variable while also collecting data from custodial records. The independent variable used in this study came from existing research while the dependent variables were…[continue]
delineation of the research hypotheses. The chapter will conclude with an outline of the remaining chapters. Relevant Background Information Increasingly, female offenders and issues associated with their incarceration have been identified as a problem of concern. Evidence suggests that female offenders represent a growing population within the U.S. penal system. Between 1986 and 1991, the number of female inmates in state prisons increased 75% (Bureau of Justice Statistics, 1994). Between 1981
CAEFS takes the position that women with mental health problems do not belong in prisons and that the treatment, support and assistance they need should be provided to them in the community, rather than in prison. Recommendation #2) The above statement clearly outlines central problem areas that should be the focus of investigation. As this study and others emphasize, women who enter prison with mental issues and problems require intensive support.
(Van Voorhis, 2004) the presence of a dynamic risk factor tells us what we can do to reduce the offender's risk. For example, if an offender presents with the dynamic risk factor of unemployment, efforts can be made to assist him in finding employment. Bonta (August 2002) discusses the need to continue to utilize the more accurate and reliable actuarial approaches to risk management in order to assess risk factors
Studies indicate that there are more poor women in prison than ever before, and this puts women at risk to become mothers younger, and to have more instability in relationships and family life as their relationships progress. Authors Travis and Visher continue, "Imprisoned offenders are disproportionately from impoverished backgrounds, which places them at greater risk for early and nonmarital parenthood. Early transitions to parenthood are clearly linked to later instability
But sometimes the victims themselves are afraid to voice their grievances in the public because speaking up entails shame, ostracization, and even extra-judicial killings. The victims can express their grievances in public "only at certain times and in certain ways" because their rights are infringed on social and cultural levels (Dewey). The fact that cultural and traditional beliefs and attitudes contribute to violations of women's rights in a systematic manner
Women and Iran Iran has long been an extremely conservative nation, greatly influenced by Islam and its teachings. What is usually regarded as common social practice in many parts of the world is regarded as a taboo in the Islamic republic. Traditionally an all male 'patriarchal' society, Iran has little to offer women in terms of roles and position. In accordance with traditional Muslim culture, women are restricted more to their
World-Bank-assisted Women-in-Development project for Ethiopia proposes to socially and economically help vulnerable women participate and benefit from its increasingly expanding economy and opportunities in the private sector. It hopes to raise the standard of living of these women and contribute to alleviating poverty. On the whole, addressing all the constraints to the effective and realistic implementation of the National Policy on Women and forming grassroots women's organization would work towards
"Women Offenders" (2003, July 21) Retrieved October 20, 2016, from http://www.paperdue.com/essay/women-offenders-152711
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"Women Offenders", 21 July 2003, Accessed.20 October. 2016, http://www.paperdue.com/essay/women-offenders-152711