Another tragic page of Jewish history is tragic period of Holocaust. There's no need to explain those terrible times and German crimes - these facts are well-known but I have to mention that Jewish Zionists managed organizing resistance to the Nazi regime and also they gained success cooperating with British, Soviet and American governments which agreed and let Jews create their state after the war. "Among the few European Jews who escaped the Holocaust were Zionists who emigrated to Palestine" (Shmuel; Reinharz, Jehuda Zionism and Religion Among, p.122). They were happy to leave Europe that was their real homeland but after Hitler's crimes they got sure that having own state, which would protect its citizens, is the best way out from international violence and anger directed against Jewish nation.
1948 was a turning point of Jewish history. At last Jewish nation created an own state on their historical land - Israel. "The aspiration of returning to their homeland was first held by Jews exiled to Babylon some 2,500 years ago - a hope which subsequently became a reality" (Paul Charles Christian attitude towards the State of Israel Merkely, p.32). After this great event the main task of Zionism was proclaimed to be "strengthening of Israel, repatriation of exiles of the land of Israel and care about the unity and prosperity of Jewish nation." Only strong country could let "Jews be safe from the waves of oppression which had occurred in virtually every country in which they had lived, especially in the West"(Zunes, Stephen Defending Zionism in a Time of Occupation and Oppression). UN ratified Jews decision for self-determination and legalized their new state- the state of Israel on the territory of Palestine. The UN's resolution about Israel got positive feedbacks from different states all over the world but I don't think some of them were really sincere, for example Soviet Union. As Paul Starobin wrote in his article Rethinking Zionism: "The establishment of a Jewish state even won support from the Soviet Union, a Communist nation and Cold War rival" but many historians (including Soviet and Russian) admit that that was not a usual support: in fact Soviets wanted Israel to be an ally and use it in own imperialistic interests to resist American influence in the region. But Soviets failed and Israel became really independent state, which started to create Capitalism but not Communist utopia. Many people were glad of that but they didn't understand that another nation in the Middle and Close East was under Soviet influence - Arabs. They were supported by Soviet Union and Soviet leader Nikita Krushev who wanted to throw America back from the region but to do this he had to destruct Jewish state which cooperated with U.S. Soviet Union supported Arabs and sent them military machines, machineguns, ammunition to fight against Jewish nation.
But having their own state on the territory which belonged to this nation (to Arabs) for many centuries was a big problem as well: these lands were inhabited by Arabs who lived there for centuries and didn't want to let Jews take "their" lands. That was and still remains one of the main problems of world politics: Jewish problem of a nation without a state was substituted by a new one of the same importance - Arabs who lived in Palestine lost their home territory and sovereignty. Sure, Jews were found aggressors and all Arabs promised to terminate the state hated by all their leaders and common Arabs.
When analyzing Palestinian point-of-view we can find out that every Arab is convinced that West (evil power as they think) wages a war against Islam and Israel is an embodiment of that aggression. According to Palestinian attitude to Israel we can see that Israel is an "evil" state that fights against Palestinian patriots and calls them "terrorists" to excuse own cruel methods. Another Zionist target is capturing all Islam territories. Sure, such egoistic interpretation of this problem is unacceptable but it causes too many innocent casualties from both sizes: Palestinian and Israeli people die in absurd conflicts which could be prevented if Arab leaders wanted to know that Palestine is Jewish homeland and Bible can prove that: Jerusalem (which pretends to be spiritual capital of both Palestine and Israel) used to be a town where Solomon built a Temple of the only God for Jews. This land was captured by Babylonians and Romans and Jews suffered a lot from these bloody conquests but they fought for their motherland. But Jews could not stand occupation and rebelled and failed many times: though they fought bravely Romans were better equipped and organized. Roman leaders wanted to stamp out Jewish connection to this land that used to be called Land of Israel and called it Palestine (and sure turned it into Roman province). Small Jewish population was discriminated in the times of Arab Caliphates and Arabs managed assimilating many of them among Islamic population. These are true facts about the Land of Israel and whose land is it. But unfortunately Arabs don't wish to understand the truth and we must solve this great problem using modern international law but not violence because it can cause terrible casualties from both sides.
Now, after Arafat's death the whole world, especially Israel, worries about his successor because all relations between Israel and Palestine depend on this. If new Palestinian leader would be a person ready to stop the conflict the situation could be improved and the conflict could be stopped if Arabs would wish to terminate their terrorist formations and live in peace with Jews. Not so long ago world mass media told us about serious reorganization of Arabs' terrorists formations in Palestine which would be united under common command and this centralization can improve this terrible killing machine which uses Arabs' religious believes in their political interests. Arab anti-Semitism is a great problem and every Arab (not only Palestinian) knows the following "program" provided by Islamic world against Israel:
Capturing Palestine was Jewish aggression against al Muslims and that's why the most dangerous and serious enemy for the whole Muslim world is Palestinian territory, which Jews call Israel. All Jews are Zionists (Arabs compare it with Nazism) and they should be punished for that.
Any trade, economical or political cooperation with Jews is prohibited by Islamic laws.
Murdering Zionists (in fact - all Jews) is honourable deed and every Arab who would die for Allah killing Jews would be considered martyr.
All Muslims must help Palestinians in any form (money, weapons, terrorist recruits etc.).
So, we can see Arab attitude to Israel and its people and the main aim for all Israeli politicians was to preserve peace and mutual understanding in the country and with Palestinian inhabitants. Solving this problem when two nations consider one land as their own is a very complicated process. Zionism tried to solve it as well and it caused different forms of Zionism: minimalism, maximalism and realism. Minimalists announced that Israel was binational land inhabited by two nations and were sure that Palestine was a land belonged both to Israel and Palestine. Maximalists were their opponents and considered that Arab problem could be solved only by force and violence using only armed forces but not international agreements. I have to mention that these two Zionism forms are not very popular because they can't solve the problem according to both Israeli and Arab interests. The majority of Zionists are realists who are convinced that conflict could not be stopped but there is a chance to attenuate it. They agree with minimalists that country should develop for the benefit of all peoples living in it. Realists admit that gaining success in this process depends on dialogue with Palestinians and other Arab states which consider Israel as an enemy because it is necessary to stop the conflict when every side world agree on acceptable conditions even if they would be compromises.
Another uneasy side of this problem is that politicians talk much about solving the problem but in fact do nothing to bring peace and stop the conflict. I love the words of one famous man Chaim Kalvarisky who once said that only by common work in different spheres (commerce, agriculture and industry) two nations (Jews and Arabs) could attain mutual understanding and peace. But he also announced and it is very important that nobody even tried to cooperate. "How many Arab officials have we installed in our banks? Not even one. How many Arabs have we brought into our schools? Not even one. What commercial houses have we established in company with Arabs? Not even one." That is really frightening.
Though Israeli side is ready (as Israeli officials say) to solve this problem Jews don't see any wish from Arabs' side to solve the problem because they "continue to believe the old Muslim doctrine that any land that was once possessed by the followers"…