First, briefly define the Resiliency Model. Then, using this video as your case study: What concepts from the Resiliency Model can you identify that were illustrated in their stories? Describe and explain. Considerations include: Did you hear any recurring themes mentioned by more than one of these young adults? What did they describe as being most valuable to them during their foster care experiences? Consider some of their recommendations: what treatment model(s) do their suggestions fall into?
This video can be accessed at: http://www.kidscount.org/kidscount/video/voices.html
In the late twentieth century, research conducted with the aim of identifying the factors that render young individuals at risk of developing various issues like mental illnesses and drug abuse generated interest in the field of resilience (Trotter, 2002). Studies revealed that individuals exposed to various risk factors eventually developed into healthy and productive society members (Masten & Powell, 2003). The studies later focused on the resilience of young individuals. It later directed their attention on uncovering internal and external protective factors responsible in assisting individuals to respond after experiencing adverse situations. The protective factors have later been broadened and offer a clear explanation why some individuals are resilient compared to other people (Garmezy, 1991).
In the "Voices of Youths" video, the concepts from the resilience model that were illustrated from the story include the experience of life stressors such as being beaten repeatedly and finally getting used to the adversities and become resilient. The children at the foster care explain their experiences of the abuses they faced while under the program. The youths in this video all reveal not just a pattern of physical abuse but sexual and emotional too. The youths have been neglected by those tasked to care for them. However, the protective factors have interfered with the adversities that these young people are undergoing and have in turn rendered then resilient. The young people after being abused and experiencing resilience, they have adapted to the situation and…… [Read More]
What is child abuse
Every explanation of child abuse and abandonment takes for granted a description of the child. The Convention on the Rights of the Child stipulates that a child is "any human who has not attained the age of 18 years except if the law pertaining to child majority is reached at an earlier age." (Child abuse & neglect) Child abuse and abandonment, at times also ascribed to as child ill treatment has been explained in the World Report on Violence and Health as: Every type of bodily and/or psychological mistreatment, sexual mistreatment, abandonment or inattentive behavior or money-making or other nature of abuses that leads to absolute or likely impairment to the well-being of the child, existence, growth or self-esteem in the perspective of a relationship of dependability, confidence or authority. (Child abuse & neglect)
In the wide meaning of the child ill-treatment, five sub-categories of ill-treatment are marked which are bodily, sexual, abandonment and mistreatment. Those damages, which are deliberately meted out on a child is known as physical maltreatment. These abuses may constitute biting, thumping, shaking the child aggressively, pulling by the hair, asphyxiation, setting ablaze or hitting the child. It is regrettable to note that, these actions do not contain all the abuses since a child can be a victim of an incredible number of methods. If it is discovered that a child is laid up with a large number of cracks in his bones, swellings, contusions, which are in different stages of healing, in that case foul play must be suspected. If at all you have been an eyewitness to aggression inflicted to children, otherwise there is not any surefire procedure to establish that a wound is the result of an abuse; children suffer injury all the while during playing. (Lambert, 2002)
An established ground rule is that the possibility of any type of "suspected" injury would not occur repeatedly. In case a particular type of injury gets repeated which does not explain its causes, this calls for the whistle to be blown and must be immediately reported to the notice of the Social Services or any other type of regulatory bodies in your locality. Any type of sexual activity between a child and an adult is regarded as sexual mistreatment. It is not mandatory that a real act of sexual intercourse should happen in case of…… [Read More]
In 1999 Herr & Conrad identified a number of areas of activity as particularly appropriate for primary prevention of physical abuse. Tackling the effects of poverty, or enabling parents to cope with them, are key components of many primary prevention interventions.
While it is particularly difficult to demonstrate the cost-effectiveness of primary preventive strategies, this problem eases as we target interventions at those most at risk of developing particular problems. Essentially this is the rationale for screening groups at high risk within health services. Of course, the benefit of this approach depends on our ability to accurately identify those at risk, and to be able to provide effective preventive services. Our improved, as yet imperfect knowledge, of some of the factors which interact to increase the risk of child abuse and neglect, affords an opportunity to design interventions which, at least conceptually, have a chance of effecting change in areas over which we have some influence.
This is one reason for placing an emphasis on secondary prevention. Others include: (i) our limited success with post-maltreatment interventions (tertiary prevention) means it remains preferable to Endeavour to pre-empt the development of problems. This also maximizes the chances of good developmental outcomes for children (Jones, 2004. Pg 12). Children in poverty: Child development and public policy. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.; (ii) in some circumstances this can be done without reference to child protection services, thereby maintaining the positive emphasis on child and family well-being that makes primary prevention such an attractive option; (iii) we now have some promising indicators that some interventions can affect the changes we are seeking, and reduce the incidence of child maltreatment. Not surprisingly, we again encounter some problems in this literature. Whilst we may be better able to identify some individuals and groups as being at risk of maltreatment, it seems that as we move into the areas of secondary and tertiary prevention problems arise in relation to the families recruited to the studies. Distinctions between those 'at risk' and those who are deemed to have in fact physically or psychologically mistreated their children can become rather blurred, particularly as one moves away…… [Read More]
Parents and/or caregivers at high risk for abuse are characterized as having unsatisfied needs, difficulty in forming adequate interpersonal relationships (friends, associates, fellow employees), unrealistic expectations from the child and a lack of nuturing experience which may involve neglect or abuse in the abuser's own childhood. In regards to the child being abused, several predisposing factors include the temperament, personality and activity levels of the child, sensitivity to parental domination and a need for special physical or emotional care resulting from an illness.
Interestingly, on a psychological level, recent research has shown that child abuse may be closely linked with developing schizophrenia, for as Rick Nauert relates, quoting from researcher Paul Hammersley of the University of Manchester in England, "two-thirds of people diagnosed as schizophrenic have suffered physical or sexual abuse" as a child. This is based on a number of studies which revealed "childhood... sexual or physical abuse in the history of the majority of psychiatric patients," most of whom are haunted by hallucinations and flashbacks, the "voices that bullied them as their abuser did, thus causing paranoia and a mistrust of people close to them" (2006, Internet). Obviously, child abuse is a very serious problem in the United States and elsewhere in the world and certainly deserves more study and research in order to determine its exact nature, causes and consequences.… [Read More]
There are many kinds of abuse that are perpetrated against children, and this paper delves into those issues as well as the history of child abuse and the situations children find themselves in where abuse occurs. Child abuse is a national tragedy, a shameful legacy in the United States and elsewhere, but the first step in stopping the abuse of children is in understanding the problem.
Definition of child abuse: The National Association of Counsel for Children (NACC). explains that there is "…no one commonly accepted definition of 'child abuse and neglect.'" However, the federal government defines child abuse and neglect in the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act as:
"…the physical and mental injury, sexual abuse, negligent treatment, or maltreatment of a child under the age of 18 by a person who is responsible for the child's welfare under circumstances which indicate that the child's health or welfare is harmed or threatened" (NACC).
History of Child Abuse: Ancient history is full of reports of infanticide, the most extreme case of abuse; the National Association of Counsel for Children reports that there was evidence of infanticide in 7000 BC (the intentional killing of children, condoned by parents or society), based on an "accepted procedure for disposing of undesirable children." Greek historian Siculus reported that "weak, infirm" children and those "who lacked courage" were simply put to death. The Roman Law of Twelve Tables "prohibited the raising of defective children," NACC continues. And even in the 19th century in Europe children were considered "property" and as property owned by parents, the parents were allowed to "destroy that property" (NACC, p. 2).
Child abuse began to be recognized in the late 19th century as courts began to protect children from the wrath of their guardians and parents; the first juvenile court was established in Illinois in 1899 that had the power to protect minors from abuse by anyone, including parents. In 1944, the U.S. Supreme Court confirmed the state's authority to "…intervene in family relationships to protect children in Prince v. Massachusetts" (NACC, p. 2).
Who are the perpetrators? Typically the child is abused by someone in the family, according to the Child Welfare Information Gateway (CWIG), a division of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Parents or adult caregivers…… [Read More]
Historical aspects and statistics of child abuse as well as its relevance to the New York City police department-NYPD today.
Child abuse is creating harm to a child or neglecting a child by another individual, whether it is an adult or a child. Child abuse can be in the nature of physical, verbal, emotional or sexual or by means of neglect as well. Abuse might result in serious forms of injury towards the child and might also lead to death. (Child Abuse: keepkidshealthy.com) Even though child abuse is considered to be an alarming social problem in the United States, yet the complex nature of its beginnings have just being started to be completely recognized. (Better understanding of Child Abuse and Neglect needed) It needs to be understood that most of the historical families had at one point of time practiced infanticide, erotic beating and that of incest. (The History of Child Abuse)
Child abuse was then considered to be matters which were involved within the family and there was nobody to interfere on behalf of an abused child. It was from the 1960s that the various states had begun to implement the reporting of laws pertaining to child abuse and emphasizing that child abuse is an important public health matter. (Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect: Protecting New York's Children) But still it needs to be noted that the reported cases of child abuse have grown at alarming rates from 416,033 per year in 1976 to that of 1,700,000 per year during the 1990's in the whole country and in New York City this is being witnessed at alarming frequencies. (Better understanding of Child Abuse and Neglect needed)
Every year, about 79,000 children are being reported and confirmed to have been abused in New York City and about 1 out of every 3 children face abuse by the time that they would have reached the age of 18. (The Children's Advocacy Center of Manhattan) Out of the 1.8 million children who live in New York City,…… [Read More]
Not surprisingly, many child abuse victims consistently show poor academic performance and are more likely to have lower educational achievements than their non-abused peers (Lansford et al., 2002; Perez & Widom, 1994, in Gilbert et al., 2009). They are more likely to receive special education as well (Jonson-Reid et al., in Gilbert et al., 2009). Consequently, many of them end up in menial and semi-skilled employment, both of which have long-lasting economic consequences for the affected individuals (Gilbert et al., 2009).
In light of the high burden and serious long-term consequences of child abuse, the need for effective intervention programs cannot be overemphasized. A broad range of these currently exists, but with a few exceptions, their effectiveness is still unknown. However, there are two outstanding programs that have been widely recognized, especially for preventing physical abuse and neglect. These are the Nurse-Family Relationship (NFP) and Early Start programs (Macmillan et al., 2009; Prinze, 2008). Both have early childhood programming and as such, their emphasis is on strengthening parenting practices and confidence, not only to prevent child abuse but social and behavioral problems in children as well (Prinze, 2008). Both are also home visitation programs delivered by especially trained nurses and/or family support workers to first time, socially-disadvantaged, and other high-risk mothers and families, with emphasis on pre-natal, post-natal, and health-related coaching (Prinze, 2008). The NFP and Early Start have consistently performed to reduce rates in reported cases of physical abuse and child neglect while giving additional benefits on maternal and child health (Macmillan, 2008; Macmillan et al., 2009).
In summary, the long-term consequences of child abuse on social behavior, mental health, academic performance, and future employment are grave enough to warrant investment in early intervention programs. The success of the Nurse-Family Relationship and Early Start Programs in reducing the rates of reported physical and child neglect abuse cases suggests that home visitation or associated programs could be a significant approach to impact the prevention of other types of child abuse.… [Read More]
The findings from Experiment 2 indicate that maltreated children's lower recognition accuracy is not secondary to an impairment of their ability to detect physical differences between facial expressions. Rather, maltreatment seems to affect children's understanding of particular emotional displays (p. 684). Relationship with Peers and Parents: A study conducted by Burack et al. In 2007 assessed the ability of maltreated school-age children and adolescents to understand the thoughts, feelings, and points-of-view of others. Level of egocentrism and social perspective-taking coordination were assessed in a group of 49 chronically maltreated and 49 demographically matched non-maltreated children. The findings revealed that despite opportunities for monitored peer interactions and contact with supportive adult models in therapeutic group home settings and in treatment programs, maltreated children and adolescents were more egocentric and delayed in their social perspective-taking development than their non-maltreated peers and that they reported lower levels of global self-worth. However, one potentially positive finding was that low levels of externalizing and internalizing behaviors among the maltreated children were associated with better interpersonal negotiation strategies with unfamiliar peers indicating that the effects of maltreatment are not necessarily globally deleterious with respect to social perspective-taking skills (see Burack et al., 2006, p. 214). According to this study, maltreating parents may pose a particular threat to their children's development of age-appropriate perspective-taking skills. The family environment of almost all maltreated children lacks the elements of support, affection, empathic modeling, and inductive child-rearing techniques that are identified as important variables in the development of the capacity for understanding the feelings and perspectives of others and a coherent sense of self. Because parents who rear their children in unresponsive or violent environments fail to foster communicative exchanges, opportunities to form emotional attachments with alternative parental figures and peers are also limited, as maltreating parents tend to isolate their families from others in the community and deprive their children of opportunities for interaction. Accordingly, maltreated children often form insecure, conflicted relationships with primary caregivers and…… [Read More]
Child Abuse & Racial Inequality
This brief report focuses the social conflict perspective of sociology while focusing on the racial inequalities within the reporting and handling of child abuse cases, both with the children themselves as well as the parents that stand accused. Indeed, the reporting and handling of these cases is deemed by many to be disparate, unfair or non-existent as it pertains to racial minorities and their children. The trends of this subject matter will be explored over a series of years of American history.
Per the commonly held and accept facets of the conflict perspective, racial inequality is not what it is was prior to the Civil War or prior to the Civil Rights era that culminated in the 1960's in the United States, but problems still do certainly exist. Indeed, as recently as the 1980's, a survey that was conducted that asked the white respondents why blacks did not have the "finer things in life" with the same frequency as white people commonly responded that they did not try hard enough. However, the same article that cites this egregious thought pattern also notes that the nature of the problem and how it's perceived by different people has clearly evolved over time (Pride, 1999).
The aforementioned problem about a shift in opinion from racial inequality being the genesis of racial differences and trends to one that posits that blacks and other minorities simply are not trying hard enough is seemingly becoming more and more prevalent. However, this does explain a lot of fairly egregious statements and actions that are verifiably due to ignorance and/or bigotry and the review and handling of child abuse cases are certainly one of those things. It is true that blacks and other minorities tend to be much poorer and thus the chance of neglect being deemed to be the case is higher but that does not give social work professionals a green light to paint with too broad a brush (Pride, 1999).
One clear precursor to dysfunction and neglect in a home with children is mental health issues and it stands to reason that people that tend to be poorer, such as is the case with racial minorities, will also be less likely to use mental health avenues or to be able to afford the same. Indeed, one example…… [Read More]
Child Abuse: Child Abuse Reporting
Who are some of the individuals who are mandated to report suspected child abuse? What are some of the conditions under which mandated reporters must report?
The California Child Abuse and Reporting Act (CANRA) places upon community members the responsibility to report suspected cases of child abuse involving children in their care, or those with whom their interact in the course of their work (McCulloch, 2012). The overriding aim of CANRA is to protect vulnerable children from neglect and abuse by unscrupulous persons. Initially, the number of people who qualified as mandated reporters was very limited; numerous amendments have, however, been made to the law over the years, expanding the ranks of mandated reporters. It would be prudent to mention, however, that community members not recognized as mandatory reporters can also file reports of suspected child abuse although they are not required to by the law. Individuals currently recognized as mandatory reporters by the California Penal Code (PC) Section 11165.7 include:
i) Clergy members -- religious practitioners, rabbis, ministers, priests and any employees of recognized religious institutions (McCulloch, 2012). The law obliges clergy members to report all child abuse claims, including those made under penitentiary provisions if they suspect that the life or well-being of the affected child is in danger as a result of the abuse (McCulloch, 2012).
ii) Educators -- teachers and teachers' aides in both private and public schools, classified school employees, child welfare supervisors, Head Start Program teachers, certificated pupil personnel workers, and State Department or County Office of Education employees whose duties require direct supervision of, and contact with children
iii) Law enforcement officers -- humane society officers, animal control officers, fire fighters (except voluntary fire fighters), peace officers, and employees of county welfare, county probation, county sheriff's and police departments (McCulloch, 2012).
iv) Medical and mental health professionals -- physical therapists, chiropractors, dentists, physicians, paramedics, custodial officers, nurses, psychological assistants, marriage and family counselors, clinical social workers, and any other health professionals whose duties require direct supervision of, and contact with children (McCulloch, 2012).
v) Child visitation monitors -- any individual whose…… [Read More]
Child Abuse: Child Abuse Reporting
Describe some questions or observations you might make to determine if a child abuse report is in order
The California Child Abuse Reporting Law imposes upon mandated reporters a duty to make immediate reports to the relevant agencies in case they suspect or are aware of a neglectful or abusive situation involving a child in their care or one that they interact with in the course of their work (McCulloch, 2012). In their report, the reporter is required to provide as much information as they possibly can about the affected child's situation including the extent and nature of their injuries, conditions in the child's home environment, their age, name, addresses, as well as the addresses and names of the person(s) responsible for the child (McCulloch, 2012). In the State of California, such a report must be filed at the sheriff's department, any police department, the county welfare department, or any probation department designated by the county to receive such reports (McCulloch, 2012).
There are a number of red flags/observations that a reporter could look out for if they suspect a case of child abuse and think that a child abuse report could be in order. First, if the child's home environment is within reach, they could look out for environmental indicators of abuse or neglect such as extreme filth or dirt; toxins, medications or dangerous weapons placed within the reach of children; hazardous conditions such as animal waste, faulty electrical features and broken windows; and choking hazards left within children's reach (McCulloch, 2012). These are obvious signs of neglect by the child's parent or caretaker, placing the child at a high risk of physical injury.
In addition to environmental indicators, the reporter could observe the parent's or caregiver's behavior or attitude towards the child. This would be the first step towards knowing whether the child's caretaker is the same person responsible for…… [Read More]
Both are needed in order to create the right balance of concern and caring that is required in raising well-adjusted and happy children. When love and discipline are mixed together correctly, a child will be mentally healthy, self-assured, responsible, self-controlled, and prepared for their own parenting experience (Child Abuse, 2010).
Since the mistreatment of a child is a complex problem with a massive amount of causes, an approach to prevention must react to a range of different needs. One of these approaches is that of support programs. The reason for support programs that are aimed at new parents is to prepare these individuals for the job of parenting. Such programs often include support during both the pre- and postnatal periods in order to ease the complicatedness that is associated with having a new infant in the home. Prenatal and postnatal medical care is clearly very important, particularly since low birth weight babies, drug exposed babies and babies who are otherwise sick in infancy are at an increased risk for being abused. Many future parents now participate in prenatal care programs that go further than the medical needs of the pregnant mother and the growing fetus to include concentration to the demands of parenting. Prenatal programs can build on existing medical programs and teach expecting parents in child development, parent-child relationships, and adult relationships (Fact Sheet: An Approach to Preventing Child Abuse, n.d.).
In many areas around the world, child abuse has only recently come out as a major social problem. Media exposure of child sexual trafficking and employment of minors has sharpened public awareness of child mistreatment as a global issue. The World Health Organization, WHO and the United Nations have described four areas of child abuse and neglect that include physical abuse, child sexual abuse, neglect and negligent treatment along with emotional abuse. The preponderance of countries around the world has come to accept these definitions. The execution of these…… [Read More]
These stories all make child abuse seem commonplace. While child abuse is still a problem in the United States, it is not one that is so common that people forget it. Everyone considers child abuse a heinous crime against children. Grassroots organizations are forming all over the country to protect children from child abuse and to provide them, their friends and family members with support. Many of these including ChildAbuse.org are operating online to provide children and their families with greater access to information and support.
Today there are even books available written for children by children, including Jessie Ottenweller's tale, "Please Tell" which is geared for children ages nine to twelve, as this is the age most children first experience some forms of abuse including physical or sexual abuse. What all of these people, books and organizations have in common is one thing. They want to eliminate the stigma surrounding the subject of child abuse and they want to get people talking about child abuse. In doing so, they hope to prevent other children from suffering in silence. Many children of abuse grow into adults that abuse. The only way to prevent this is to start opening up, and to start encouraging children and their families to come forward with their tales. The sooner children learn to be honest and the sooner they learn they have done no wrong if they become victims, the sooner the people of the United States will heal from this horrific crime.… [Read More]
Child Abuse Reporting
The author of this report has been asked to create a report surrounding the subject of child abuse, what is legally required from an agency standpoint it comes to the same, confidentiality rules and so forth. The pertinent questions that will be asked are centered on a case study where an eleven-year-old boy reveals that he has been subject to words and behavior and the latter of those two is clearly illegal and abusive. The author will describe why it is necessary for the author (from an agency standpoint) to report the behavior, why it will be necessary to deal with breach of confidentiality with William (and the "how" behind the same) and how the author of this report would make up the report based on the totality of the circumstances and the facts. Finally, the author will fill out a real child abuse reporting form modeled after the event described in this report.
Before getting into how to address and deal with the victimization of William, the author of this report would first summarize and depict has occurred so that the context of the reporting to come is explained within this report. William Jones is an eleven-year-old boy that has had a total of three sessions with a local agency. During the third session, he reveals to the agency worker that his seventeen-year-old brother and some of his friends have been "talking dirty" to him. Further, they are encouraging William to look at "dirty" pictures. The brother and his friends are touching William's private parts. Further, they are making William do similar things to them.
There are a couple of reasons this must be reported. First, if the author of the report is the confidant for William and the author is working at a local agency that deals with and addresses child abuse, this would make the author of this report what is known as a mandated reporter. The mandated reporter law, which is the law of the land in the vast majority of the United States, pertains to whom must report apparent or proven cases of child neglect or abuse. Abuse can come in the form of physical attacks or in the form of sexual molestation, sodomy, incest…… [Read More]
Stress among parents is one main cause of neglect of children. Among them the family's financial status is one of the key factors that cause child neglect. Children from poor families are most of the times not fully provided for by their parents. This is due to lack of funds to support their children and thus make them miss out on some essentials in life.
Another cause of child abuse is different social and cultural practices. People's beliefs can also be a cause of child abuse. Children are physically abused when they are brutally hit by their parents in the name of disciplining them. 'Spare the rod spoil the child' this is a phrase that most people have misinterpreted and have ended up when inducing punishment to the children.
Domestic violence is also another cause of child abuse. When both parents are fighting at times one of the parents, in this case the mother may at time lack the ability to protect the children from their violent father.
Drug abuse is one of the major causes of child neglect and abuse. Drug and substances use distorts the judgement of a person thus they could do something harmful to children and still not notice it. For instance alcoholism is one of the main causes of wrecking many marriages. It leads to violence, separations, poverty, and even death of one of the parents or both. All these factors are key causes of child abuse and neglect among many others.
Models of child abuse
There are various models of child abuse, they include: the sociological model, psychological model, the medical model and the feminist model. In the case of medical models, abuse is viewed as a disease. The disable children are viewed… [Read More]
The initial reporter of the instances of abuse and neglect is often a teacher or care provider who may want to be involved in the process of aiding the child in CPS, since he or she may have seen a history of such poor care directed to the child. Additionally, the CPS intake worker, supervisor, and CPS investigator should ideally function in a unified manner. The intake worker is the one who receives the initial call for abuse and makes a risk assessment, and works directly with the reporter, while the CPS supervisor consults with the intake worker in regards to history and may send out the CPS investigator who interviews the child and his or her family. Effective cooperation between these individuals, which may be aided by law enforcement authorities, requires few egos involved nad even fewer contradictions in prescribed courses of action for the child.
Differential response is a form of CPS intervention that attempts to utilize more than one method, and incorporates both investigation and assessment responses to reports of child abuse (Schene, 2008, 2). Concurrent planning is a method of placing children within the foster care system in permanent homes, which can either be with their true parents or a foster family, while pursuing both avenues at the same time (Child Welfare, 2005, 2). The similarities between these methodologies are that they both incorporate options for achieving their goal. The primary difference between these methodologies is that differential response is for child abuse and neglect, while concurrent planning is for children already within the foster care system. The pros of both methods is that they allow for a degree of mutability and are not fixed in their procedures for helping children. The cons for concurrent planning are that attempting to seek a foster home for a child may detract from the ability for that child to be reunited with his or her parents, while negative facets of differential response include the fact that not all cases are thoroughly investigated. We should continue to pursue both of these strategies, due to the assortment of cases and the variety of methods needed to deal with them.… [Read More]
Bruises are the most common injury; the pattern, shape and location should be noted, because certain instruments such as belt or hanger will make a specific mark on the body. Those over boney areas such as the knee and elbow are frequently accidental. Areas that are in protected and padded areas, such as the face ad buttocks, should be of concern. Lacerations and coloring will give an indication of timing. Blood clotting time and platelet count should be ordered to rule out other reasons for bruising.
Bite marks are a concern due to infection, and if they are caused by an animal or a human (child or adult). The most common cause of burns is scalding from hot liquid. About 10 to 25% of all burns are abuse, and most occur in children under three. Again, pattern, location and characteristics must be noted. Accidental burns normally leave an irregular pattern on the face, hands and trunk due to splashes. Other burns, such as those that are uniform, are more suspect of emersion or purposeful scalding. Cigarette burns are also common, because the child may accidentally come in contact with the lit end. A more pronounced and deeper burn is indicative of purposeful cigarette burns.
It is essential for the healthcare provider to keep in mind that there are mimickers of child physical abuse. For example, Mongolian spots, most often seen in black, Arab, Latino and American Indian babies, are blue-green areas of pigmentation normally on the buttocks. These can be taken for bruises. The child should be reassessed in a week, if necessary. Erythema multiforme minor is caused by a reaction to drugs or infections. These lesions can also be mistaken for abuse.
Any fracture in a child that is not yet walking should be of concern. About 60% of fractures in children a year old and younger are nonaccidental. Multiple fractures or those in different stages of healing are also very suspect. Those that are most likely accidental are clavicular and linear skull fractures.
Inflicted head injury and shaken baby…… [Read More]
Teachers and administrative staff are also very involved in the lives of the children at educational facilities. When child abuse is suspected, school staff reports such potential abuse, alerting authorities when necessary. Moreover, schools are very active in prevention of abuse for future generations as well. Planning for parenthood and equipping older students with proper sex education helps keeps kids informed and aware of their sexual behavior and its potential impact on future children. Many high schools around the country "have curricula on learning how to parent adequately" (Crosson-Tower 2003). This helps create a situation where future child abuse can be minimized.
This system has some strengths and weaknesses. It allows school staff to take a proactive role in students' lives, creating a change when needed in cases of potential abuse. The teacher's role as a protector and the requirements of reporting potential abuse helps alert authorities when they would otherwise not have known. Still, there are weaknesses as well. Bullying is a common practice within schools, and is a form of child abuse as well. Unfortunately, "low levels of supervision at schools can be problematic, particularly on the playground or in the hallways" (Crosson-Tower 2003). This can allow situations were bullying affects many of the children within the educational institution.
Using previous offenders to help create new and more effective prevention strategies is an innovative approach to prevention abuse and neglect. It allows authorities to get an inside perspective on abuse that they would otherwise lack. Such strategies are taking advantage others' crimes and making some good come from in that authorities are learning about signals and signs that accompany abuse. Many might see this as potentially dangerous, yet I believe that it is an innovative way to create and implement more effective prevention programs because it uses the experiences and knowledge of real offenders who have dealt with the system and know its inefficiencies.… [Read More]
Studies like the one by Greenfield and Marks are therefore extremely important in terms of its contribution to the general social understanding of what exactly constitutes abuse, risk factors for abuse, and how to prevent it. The risk of negative mental health in adulthood highlights the importance of preventing violence against children; whichever form this may take.
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
The research on child abuse highlight several important issues and gaps. There remains a qualitative gap in terms of investigating specific family relationships, histories, and problematic factors that may lead to either chronic or occasional violence against children. Despite recent research, much can still be done to address the nature and long-term effects of psychological violence against children. Finally, there is an important gap in terms of creating an organized body of research on the different types of violence that might be perpetrated against children, and the specific long-term effects of these.
In conclusion, children are the most important, but also the most vulnerable members of any society. They are not only at the mercy of whatever fundamental belief system there parents might espouse, but also of the difficulties and stressors that may cause their parents to come mentally unhinged. It is the duty of the society within which these children live to protect them. Hence, studies into the phenomenon of child abuse should be encouraged both for cultivating a better understanding of the issues surrounding child abuse as well…… [Read More]
Child Abuse and Neglect
Juvenile Courts vs. Criminal Courts: Tackling Child Abuse Cases
The Juvenile Court is a sub-division of the Superior court, which handles cases of child abuse and neglect under its Child Dependency department. The Juvenile Court often intervenes to protect children where there have allegations made of abuse and neglect upon the family. It can not only remove children from their homes and place them in foster care but also can terminate parental rights and create new ones. Government agencies and social services are usually involved if a child is removed from his/her home, which are then responsible for the child until he/she is placed in the care of suitable relatives or with foster family, which are by law required to be monitored regularly as per The Federal Adoption Assistance and Child Welfare Act of (Public Law, 96-272).
Criminal Courts, on the other hand, take on child dependency cases when a family member is accused of the crime against the child. In criminal proceedings, the accused abuser is on the stand, and the focus is on whether he/she is guilty or not. Advantages of these proceedings include the authority to compel a witness to take the stand in the courtroom and provide testimony, which is helpful in cases where the witness is not testifying.
The rulings of the Juvenile Courts may seem pretty extreme in their ruling, as it may result in the separation of the family, which in itself can have a strong effect on the child. The effect can be doubled in the scenario if the Foster family is not a reliable one, which can provide a good home for the child. In a criminal court proceeding, while the effect of the court proceedings can…… [Read More]