Mental abuse is "when one person uses another person's insecurities, phobias and fear to force another to do as they wish," such as "withholding various items, feelings, affection, or personal and physical needs such as food, sleep, water, comfort, warmth and even elimination" as a way to get the victim to do the abuser's bidding (Four pp). Children of mental abuse are suffer from depression, emotional withdrawal, low self-esteem, sleep disorders, or suicide, and may develop self-mutilating behaviors or become socially isolated (Four pp).
Again, therapy with a licensed psychotherapist and psychologist is necessary for children of mental abuse (Four pp).
Physical abuse is the most obvious and most easily diagnosable type of child abuse, and is defined as "one or more episodes of aggressive behavior usually resulting in physical injury with possible damage to internal organs, sense organs, the central nervous system or the muscle or bones of another person" (Four pp). Common signs or indications of physical abuse include:
Physical evidence of abuse and/or neglect including evidence of previous injuries; Conflicting stories about the "accident" or injury from parents, guardian, husband or wife; the cause of injury is blamed on siblings, children and/or pets; the evidence of an injury that is inconsistent with the person's medical history; in children, a history that is inconsistent with a child's development such as hot water and a six-month-old baby;
Coming to the hospital for a reason other then the one associated with signs of abuse such as complaining of a cough when there are bruises all over chest and back; Caregiver, guardian, husband or wife reacts in an exaggerated or unemotional state; Refusal of caregiver, guardian, husband or wife to authorize medical treatment;Inappropriate response in abused person such as no response to pain or fear of being touched
Repeated visits to emergency rooms for "accidents" or a history of visiting more then one hospital in an area repeatedly (Four pp).
Victims of physical abuse develop fear of the abuser, will socially isolate themselves, develop depression, addiction and even suicide (Four pp). Medical intervention and therapy with a psychologist specialized in abuse and post-traumatic stress disorder is necessary (Four pp).
Dr. Walter Lambert stresses that unfortunately "most, if not all, state laws in this country say that parents are allowed to hit their children...aggravated…… [Read More]
"Although it is extremely important when interviewing children about alleged abuse to determine whether the abuse was single or repeated… we have little information about how children judge the frequency of events… [and] overall children were very accurate at judging the frequency of a single event, but much less so for repeated events." (Sharman, et al., 2011).
Department of Health & Human Services (HHS) reports that in the year 2010 there were approximately 3.3 million referrals of "suspected abuse pertaining to six million children" in the United States (Samuels, 2011). The HHS data reflects that many children are being abused through neglect, through physical abuse (including sexual abuse), or through medical or educational neglect, and other forms of abuse. This paper delves into the problems associated with child abuse, the actions that professionals should take, the way to tell abuse has been done, and the overall impact on society when children are abused at a young age.
Why is this topic important to contemporary families?
This topic is important because reports of abuse to children are widespread throughout the world. Bringing attention to this problem is necessary. For example, a study in Malaysia, while not very surprising, points to the many negatives that result from a child being abused. Young victims of physical abuse, according to professor Samah of the Universiti Putra Malaysia, "…routinely experience emotional disturbance" including: "feelings of isolation, shame, fear, anxiety and even suicide ideation" (Samah, 2011, p. 230). Abused children are also known to show: a) low self-esteem; b) long-term developmental problems; c) depression; d) physical aggression; e) school failure; f) excessive uneasiness; g) passive behavior; h) poor communication skills; i) poor resiliency skills" (Samah, 230).
Secondarily, in the Journal of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology the authors conducted a study using 113 adults that were receiving outpatient treatment for substance abuse issues. The 113 participants were given several questionnaires to determine if they had been sexually or…… [Read More]
Child Abuse in Literature
Child maltreatment entails all types of neglect and abuse of a child below eighteen years by caregivers, parents or any other person (Crosson-Tower, 2006). Child abuse encompasses all forms of physical abuse, emotional abuse, sexual abuse, neglect or child exploitation that causes potential or actual harm to a child's well-being, dignity and development (Smith & Fong, 2004). According to Scannapieco & Connell-Carrick (2005), child maltreatment is a stern problem capable of causing harmful effects on a child victim. Scannapieco & Connell-Carrick (2005) confirmed that many children experience severe beatings, sexual abuse, neglect and even killed by a parent or other people taking guardianship of children. In the modern world, the media highlight numerous stories of children suffering severely in the hands of their caregivers and parents (Howe, 2005). Evidently, parents place their children in closets without giving them food; others drown in the bathtubs, beaten while others get tied to a pole. Although such atrocities are few in the contemporary world, many children continue to suffer silently in the hands of their caregivers (DePanfilis, 2006). There are systems used to protect children from all forms of maltreatment, help families develop healthier parenting besides punishing perpetrators of child maltreatment. In this regard, this paper will assess the story," A Child Called It" by Dave Pelzer. The paper will also identify the abuse highlighted in the book and the intervention strategies used to protect the child in question from further maltreatment.
A Child Called It
"A Child Called It" is a book that records the memorable account of a most severe child abuse case. The book highlights a jerking factual story of one child who lived in starvation, torture and cruelty from his alcoholic and emotionally unstable mother. His mother treated him as if he were not her son to the extent that he learnt to play dirty games such as stealing to survive. Dave faced maltreatment since he was fours years old until school officials secured him when he was twelve years old. Dave slept in the basement, in an army Cot, and wore raunchy and torn clothes. His mother…… [Read More]
Child abuse can be referred to as a physical, sexual or an emotional state of harm that is inflicted upon the child. There are various types and forms that can be undertaken by the abuser which may involve hitting, shaking, beating, burning or even biting the child in the physical form, Sexual forms of child abuse may involve incest, molestation, touching and exposing the child to sexual acts that may not be appropriate for them and they may not want to be involved in. The emotional states of such harm include scolding, tormenting, abusing, humiliating and insulting them. Some people also argue that neglecting the child's needs will also be categorized under abuse in some cases, for instance not giving them water and food, depriving them of shelter, clothing and other such necessities of life which also inflict harm upon the child in one way or the other. This phenomenon is quite an increasing form of tragedy in the society and is not just restricted to third world and underdeveloped nations (McCauley).
Causes of child abuse
Child abuse is one of those aspects in our societies that are slowly spreading their ways and becoming increasingly common. The causes of such acts are widespread and can be traced to different kinds of settings, environments and circumstances that lead to these happenings.
One of the most common reasons for the occurrence of such incidences is that of the economic conditions that exist in most countries. The financial crisis that is prevailing makes it difficult for the families to fulfill their basic necessities of life and earn enough to support their families which are why they subject their children to abusive situations. The children in many poverty stricken countries are deprived of basic education because they are subjected to work since an early age. Small children are sent out on the streets to beg for money, to work in extreme conditions in mines and construction sites so that they may earn enough to have food once a day.
In some extreme situations, young girls and teenagers may even be exposed to prostitution and sexual services to earn money which is a serious form of child abuse that is becoming quite common. When the children retaliate and refuse to obey their relatives in performance of such roles, they are beaten…… [Read More]
Child and Elder Abuse
The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) publishes a website called healthychildren.org. -- and the section called "What do I need to know about child abuse?" provides excellent information on the particulars of child abuse. The Healthy Children site points out that child abuse "…is common," and hence, with all the reports on television and in the newspapers about children being mistreated, it should cause parents, guardians, teachers and others to wonder if their child is truly safe. The advice given to teachers and parents is not to become "…overprotective" and not to make the child frightened of the unknown. But rather, to recognize the "actual risks" that are out there. And for those who interact with the child (like teachers, friends and parents of friends) it is important to become familiar with "signs of abuse" so that if indeed a child is suffering from abuse, something can be done (Healthy Children).
What are the signs of child abuse?
First of all, children who suffer from abuse are not likely to tell anyone because they fear they may be "…blamed or that no one will believe them"; moreover, children who are being abused may not want to tell anyone because the person abusing them is someone "…they love very much" (Healthy Children). Also, the person abusing the child may be a bully at school, and the child is afraid to report that activity because of possible repercussions (e.g., the bully may try to get even with the child for reporting him).
But that having been said, alert parents, teachers and others should know the signs that suggest a child has been abused. For parents, the following behavioral signs should raise serious concerns: a) the child has "unusual fears" or nightmares and seems depressed; b) the child starts bedwetting and complains of abdominal pain; c) he may try to run away; d) for older children, a boy or a girl that is being abused may engage in "extreme sexual behavior"; e) he or she lacks self-confidence, has headaches and abnormal fears; f) failure in school and "sudden dramatic weight gain" are also common in abused children (Healthy Children).
Child abuse can run the gamut from emotional neglect, physical violence, medical neglect, psychological abuse (parents who say, "You're worthless and no good for anything" are being psychologically cruel),…… [Read More]
First, briefly define the Resiliency Model. Then, using this video as your case study: What concepts from the Resiliency Model can you identify that were illustrated in their stories? Describe and explain. Considerations include: Did you hear any recurring themes mentioned by more than one of these young adults? What did they describe as being most valuable to them during their foster care experiences? Consider some of their recommendations: what treatment model(s) do their suggestions fall into?
This video can be accessed at: http://www.kidscount.org/kidscount/video/voices.html
In the late twentieth century, research conducted with the aim of identifying the factors that render young individuals at risk of developing various issues like mental illnesses and drug abuse generated interest in the field of resilience (Trotter, 2002). Studies revealed that individuals exposed to various risk factors eventually developed into healthy and productive society members (Masten & Powell, 2003). The studies later focused on the resilience of young individuals. It later directed their attention on uncovering internal and external protective factors responsible in assisting individuals to respond after experiencing adverse situations. The protective factors have later been broadened and offer a clear explanation why some individuals are resilient compared to other people (Garmezy, 1991).
In the "Voices of Youths" video, the concepts from the resilience model that were illustrated from the story include the experience of life stressors such as being beaten repeatedly and finally getting used to the adversities and become resilient. The children at the foster care explain their experiences of the abuses they faced while under the program. The youths in this video all reveal not just a pattern of physical abuse but sexual and emotional too. The youths have been neglected by those tasked to care for them. However, the protective factors have interfered with the adversities that these young people are undergoing and have in turn rendered then resilient. The young people after being abused and experiencing resilience, they have adapted to the situation and fairing on even better than they…… [Read More]
This research investigates the connection amongst childhood abuse as well as neglect and sexual risk conduct in middle adult years and whether psychosocial aspects (risky romances, affective signs and symptoms, alcohol and drug use, along with delinquent as well as illegal conduct) mediate this connection (Wilson and Widom, 2011). I was attracted to this article because it offered definitive proof about how child abuse and neglect can cause HIV risk as well as negative sexual behavior later in life.
Many studies have connected childhood maltreatment with high-risk sexual conduct in the future (e.g., Bensley, Van Eenwyk, & Simmons, 2000; Berenson, Wiemann, & McCombs, 2001). Nevertheless, the vast majority of research has focused solely on sexual maltreatment (Senn, Carey, & Vanable, 2008), and quite a few have depended on retrospective reviews of childhood maltreatment. As a possible exception, results from the prospective cohort structure study stated that of those that have reported cases of childhood physiological abuse, sexual exploitation, and disregard, in comparison with matched controls, had been at elevated risk for prostitution (Widom & Kuhns, 1996; Wilson & Widom, 2008a) and premature sexual start (Wilson & Widom, 2008a) examined in youthful adulthood. This research also discovered that sufferers of child exploitation and disregard were much more likely than non-maltreated controls to become HIV positive and also to report having experienced additional sexually transmitted diseases (stds) in middle adult years (Wilson & Widom, 2008a, 2009b). The present study grows upon this attempt to analyze connections from childhood exploitation and disregard to high-risk sexual conduct within the same participants followed up in middle adult years, at estimated age Forty one (Wilson and Widom, 2011).
Exactly how was the research carried out?
Latest study implicates childhood maltreatment like a risk factor for long-lasting health issues and health risks action (Dube et al., 2003; Rodgers et al., 2004; Walker et al., 1999). Childhood exploitation and disregard can lead to a stream…… [Read More]
Child abuse maltreatment limited an age occur infant, toddler, preschool, school-age years. Choose age groups (infant, toddler, preschool, school age) discuss types abuse age. Discuss warning signs physical emotional assessment findings nurse child abuse.
Reporting suspected child abuse: The nurses' dilemma
Accusing a parent or other relative of child abuse is a serious allegation, and nurses are understandably often reluctant to take such a step. Common signs of child abuse in school-age children include (but are not limited to): "bruises, fractures or burns that are not adequately explained" (such as cigarette burns); sexually explicit comments by the child that are not age-appropriate; unexplained genital or rectal injuries; sexually-transmitted diseases; abnormal behavior or behavioral changes; reported nightmares; simulation of sexual acts by him or herself or with peers; psychosomatic headaches and stomachaches; withdrawal from peers; depression; low self-esteem; "indiscriminate affection toward all adults;" signs of neglect; inadequately dress; being unclean; "poor school attendance;" and a "lack of standard pediatric care" (Klass 1989).
"All fifty states, as well as Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, have passed some type of mandatory child abuse reporting statute" for physicians as "a requirement in order for states to receive federal grants under the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act" and nurses are often covered by this statute as well (Albrandt 2002). However, not all cases of suspected child abuse are black and white. Does spanking constitute child abuse? Most would say that it is still culturally accepted as a practice to some degree -- but how much and how frequently? To what extent is poverty a form of 'neglect' or abuse, based upon the parents' ability to care for the child? "Parenting may be especially difficult for low-income parents who struggle to rear children under stressful conditions" and parents may react in inappropriate ways to that stress (Medora, Wilson & Larson 2001). Drawing the line between what constitutes abuse and a 'bad day' is part of the role of the nurse.
The advantages of breastfeeding
A key component in encouraging women to breast feed is education. "Older women tend to have more education and life experience, and so may be more likely to breastfeed. Education…plays a role in…… [Read More]
But the result of child abuse, including difficulty in adjusting to society and difficulty in education tend to result in a higher rate of unemployment. In short, child abuse tends to produce the same conditions where child abuse is more likely to occur.
The research shows two vital things, the first being that the number of cases of child abuse are exceedingly high, and two, that the number of cases are increasing. With the amount of money being spent on child abuse prevention, the question must be asked as to why rates continue to increase. While some believe that the increase is only due to increased awareness, this does not hold true when you consider both the extreme rise in numbers and the rise in the numbers of severely injured children. If sexual abuse cases had been increasing, this could be attributed not necessarily to more incidents, but to more incidents being reported. However, it is not feasible to assume that serious injuries would have gone unreported.
One study also reports that "41 per cent of children who died between 1994 and 1996 had prior or current contact with the child welfare system." (CWLA, 1997) This figure suggests that knowing that a child is at risk of child abuse does not prevent the occurrence of it, at least not in all cases. It is also suggested that greater research into the risk factors would allow child welfare agencies to be better equipped to detect risk factors earlier and provide intervention services more effectively. (Carter, 2000)
Various factors can be seen as contributors to child abuse, but it is difficult to say which is the actual cause. For example, is poverty the cause, or is the frustration of unemployment the cause. Regardless of which is the real contributor the fact is that children living in poverty are more likely to be victims of abuse. This is the reason why it is important to ensure child abuse prevention strategies reach this target group.
The second criteria is that prevention activities that reach the target group are effective. Especially with less funding available for prevention, the prevention activities need to get results. Research into the area is one way that strategies can be effectively targeted…… [Read More]
What is child abuse
Every explanation of child abuse and abandonment takes for granted a description of the child. The Convention on the Rights of the Child stipulates that a child is "any human who has not attained the age of 18 years except if the law pertaining to child majority is reached at an earlier age." (Child abuse & neglect) Child abuse and abandonment, at times also ascribed to as child ill treatment has been explained in the World Report on Violence and Health as: Every type of bodily and/or psychological mistreatment, sexual mistreatment, abandonment or inattentive behavior or money-making or other nature of abuses that leads to absolute or likely impairment to the well-being of the child, existence, growth or self-esteem in the perspective of a relationship of dependability, confidence or authority. (Child abuse & neglect)
In the wide meaning of the child ill-treatment, five sub-categories of ill-treatment are marked which are bodily, sexual, abandonment and mistreatment. Those damages, which are deliberately meted out on a child is known as physical maltreatment. These abuses may constitute biting, thumping, shaking the child aggressively, pulling by the hair, asphyxiation, setting ablaze or hitting the child. It is regrettable to note that, these actions do not contain all the abuses since a child can be a victim of an incredible number of methods. If it is discovered that a child is laid up with a large number of cracks in his bones, swellings, contusions, which are in different stages of healing, in that case foul play must be suspected. If at all you have been an eyewitness to aggression inflicted to children, otherwise there is not any surefire procedure to establish that a wound is the result of an abuse; children suffer injury all the while during playing. (Lambert, 2002)
An established ground rule is that the…… [Read More]
Child abuse is one of the most dangerous and serious problems confronting society, perhaps because of the helplessness and innocence of the victims. What is particularly bothersome about child abuse is that it occurs in all income, racial, religious, and ethnic groups and in urban and rural communities. Likewise, there is no uniform definition of what constitutes child abuse, making it difficult to ascertain what prevention and treatment methods are most effective. For example, in Sweden, the law prohibits any physical punishment of children, including spanking. By contrast, in some countries of Asia, Africa, and the Caribbean, parents are expected to punish their children by hitting them.
This paper analyzes and examines the multitude of issues related to child abuse. Part II defines child abuse. In Part III, a history of child abuse is offered. Part IV evaluates why child abuse exists according to control theory and anomy theory. In Part V, how socialization agents such as educational/school systems, family, mass media, and peer groups may intervene to eliminate or reduce the occurrence of child abuse is outlined. Part VI reviews the consequences for society/social institutions and future generations if child abuse is not eliminated or reduced.
II. DEFINITION OF THE PROBLEM
The primary federal legislation addressing child abuse and neglect is the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA) which was originally enacted in 1974 and which has been amended and reauthorized numerous times. One of the key elements of CAPTA is that it provides federal funding to states in support of assessment, investigation, prevention, prosecution, and treatment activities and also provides grants to nonprofit organizations and public agencies for demonstration programs and projects. In addition, CAPTA establishes the Office on Child Abuse and Neglect, identifies the federal role in supporting data collection activities, evaluation, research, and technical assistance, and mandates the National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information.
CAPTA also sets forth a minimum definition of child abuse and neglect. Under CAPTA, child abuse and neglect is defined as, at a…… [Read More]
As some journalists have brought up, this scandal is evocative of the scandal with the Catholic Church and demonstrates how a marked upheaval in the way universities and institutions are conducted (Hamilton, 2012).
The media, while impartial, can often be a moral compass for the rest of the world. Few people can forget the horrors of the reactions of Penn State's college students when the scandal just broke, upon the firing of Joe Paterno: the media captured how the students rioted the streets, acting out, even turning over a news van. The rest of the world watched in revulsion: these college students, by sympathizing with Paterno, someone who had essentially protected and sheltered a pedophile, these young college students were sympathizing with Sandusky, the pedophile in question. "It's difficult to look at the images of the Penn State University students performing pep rally chants and turning over a media van to protest Joe Paterno's firing and not think: Shame on us all. Shame on us for creating a culture where thousands of students are so caught up in idol worship that they can't see how repugnant it is to pine for a man who essentially looked the other way as serious allegations of rape and child abuse were leveled at his top aide" (Pierre, 2011).
It was important for the media to document this and to capture this footage so that the rest of the country could unite up in arms, voicing their outrage at this reaction and the sunset of decency that had occurred at the school. Even though the community at Penn State was not expressing initial outrage at what had occurred to the victims, but rather what was happening to their beloved football coach, the media, by recording this unsatisfactory reaction, helped to create a national situation that realigned the moral compass on behalf of the victims of the scandal.
When it comes to child abuse and such a complex case as the Penn State scandal, the media can also summarize and educate the general public about how to spot potential pedophiles and how pedophiles establish rapport with potential victims, even if they don't do so overtly. For example, much of what Sandusky did to his victims in the beginning stages was classic behavior of pedophiles: simply by reporting the strategies…… [Read More]
Child Abuse & Racial Inequality
This brief report focuses the social conflict perspective of sociology while focusing on the racial inequalities within the reporting and handling of child abuse cases, both with the children themselves as well as the parents that stand accused. Indeed, the reporting and handling of these cases is deemed by many to be disparate, unfair or non-existent as it pertains to racial minorities and their children. The trends of this subject matter will be explored over a series of years of American history.
Per the commonly held and accept facets of the conflict perspective, racial inequality is not what it is was prior to the Civil War or prior to the Civil Rights era that culminated in the 1960's in the United States, but problems still do certainly exist. Indeed, as recently as the 1980's, a survey that was conducted that asked the white respondents why blacks did not have the "finer things in life" with the same frequency as white people commonly responded that they did not try hard enough. However, the same article that cites this egregious thought pattern also notes that the nature of the problem and how it's perceived by different people has clearly evolved over time (Pride, 1999).
The aforementioned problem about a shift in opinion from racial inequality being the genesis of racial differences and trends to one that posits that blacks and other minorities simply are not trying hard enough is seemingly becoming more and more prevalent. However, this does explain a lot of fairly egregious statements and actions that are verifiably due to ignorance and/or bigotry and the review and handling of child abuse cases are certainly one of those things. It is true that blacks and other minorities tend to be much poorer and thus the chance of neglect being deemed to be the case is higher but that does not give social work professionals a green light to paint with too broad a brush (Pride, 1999).
One clear precursor to dysfunction and neglect in a home with children is mental health issues and it stands to reason that people that tend to be poorer, such as is the case…… [Read More]
Pastor's Responsibilities with Child Abuse
Comment by Sabina:
Pastor's Responsibilities with Child Abuse
It is important for pastors and youth pastors to become familiarized with the child abuse laws in the state in which they serve. Many youth pastors encounter child abuse in their service to their church, and there are specific guidelines that should be followed for reporting child abuse. Failure to report child abuse can result in criminal prosecution for the youth pastor (Hammar, 2010). If a youth pastor gains information about a child being abused in their home environment, he/she must follow the proper protocols for reporting child abuse. The youth pastor should also inform the senior pastor about the abuse.
The senior pastor should ensure that the youth pastor contact the local child protective services and report the abuse. The senior pastor should also ensure the church has procedures for handling child abuse that are in accordance with state laws. If the church currently does not have procedures for handling child abuse, they should ensure research is conducted and proper procedures are in place. The senior pastor should speak with the child, and get as much information available about the abuse, name of parents and address. They should open a file for the child (preferably computerized record), the record should documented with information that was gathered, how and by whom. The pastor should also ensure the method of reporting is recorded to ensure the church is following proper procedures. This record should be stored in a confidential environment such as on a computer with password, to protect the privacy of the victim.
The church is required to keep a record of the name of the child, the name of the parents or abusers and address if it can be obtained. Most state have toll free numbers where the abuse can be reported. The responsibility of the pastor to the child is to ensure…… [Read More]
Abused and Exploited Children
Child abuse is one of the most unfortunate realities of our society. In a world marked by progress, it is sad that there are still many households where young children are being subjected to violence both physical and otherwise. Child abuse is defined as any non-accidental harm or injury to a child caused by an adult. Despite the presence of numerous child protection services and agencies, children are still regularly facing violence at home which may often lead to fatal injuries. Even though child abuse is commonly known and understood as physical abuse, this is not entirely true. Abuse can occur in other forms as well and we shall now discuss some of the more common forms in which child abuse mars our society.
Define the 4 types of abuse and give 4-5 examples of the most common signs/symptoms of that type of abuse.
TYPES OF CHILD ABUSE
The most easily detected abuse is physical abuse where bruises or other marks on a child's body can be seen. It is the most easily reportable sign of abuse because it can be seen and various cases of physical abuse are regularly reported by people other than the perpetrator. Some of the usual signs and symptoms are as follows:
Bruises caused by the use of cords, electric wires, belts etc.
Broken bones caused by use of physical force
Cuts and laceration
Burns caused by cigarette marks etc.
These are just some of the ways in which physical injury results but there may be many other ways used by perpetrator to cause harm to a child.
Other common form of abuse is sexual abuse but it goes unreported on a large scale because it is a hidden form of abuse. The child may be too young to understand sexual advances or touching and hence even though he or she may feel violated, there is no way to express or explain exactly what went wrong. Even where such cases are noticed by other adults, shame can often prevent people from confronting the situation and reporting…… [Read More]
Child Abuse and Neglect Analysis
The placement agency that I am personally affiliated with is Operation Safehouse which is a transitional living facility for at risk homeless youth ages eighteen to twenty one. There are two primary locations. One is in Riverside, CA and the other is in Thousand Palms, CA (SafeHouse, N.d.). Both locations offer services that include offer education, employment, case management, therapy, and life skills for our clients that have entered into our program. It is extremely likely that a high percentage of the individuals who enter into the program have encountered abuse or neglect at some point in their development or recent past. I would personally estimate that roughly one-half to three-fourths of clients meet the criteria for abuse and neglect. Most of these individuals come from environments that are too toxic for them to stay so they seek help from outside resources. For many of these individuals, the transition into a treatment or counseling program can be difficult and many are hesitant to leave an abusive relationship even if there is help available. This analysis will look at three different types of organizations that offer similar or complementary service for abused or neglected adolescents.
The Future of Children
The Future of Children is a collaboration of the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs at Princeton University and the Brookings Institution and the mission of the Future of Children is to translate the best social science research about children and youth into information that is useful to policymakers, practitioners, grant-makers, advocates, the media, and students of public policy (The Future of Children, N.d.). The special target area for the organization actually focuses on the dissemination of information. The organization publishes at least two journal articles a year and attempts to keep any technical rhetoric out of these so that the research presented is more accessible to a broader audience.
The organization's main route in which they disseminate information is undoubtedly through their website. On the site there are links that allow…… [Read More]
Not surprisingly, many child abuse victims consistently show poor academic performance and are more likely to have lower educational achievements than their non-abused peers (Lansford et al., 2002; Perez & Widom, 1994, in Gilbert et al., 2009). They are more likely to receive special education as well (Jonson-Reid et al., in Gilbert et al., 2009). Consequently, many of them end up in menial and semi-skilled employment, both of which have long-lasting economic consequences for the affected individuals (Gilbert et al., 2009).
In light of the high burden and serious long-term consequences of child abuse, the need for effective intervention programs cannot be overemphasized. A broad range of these currently exists, but with a few exceptions, their effectiveness is still unknown. However, there are two outstanding programs that have been widely recognized, especially for preventing physical abuse and neglect. These are the Nurse-Family Relationship (NFP) and Early Start programs (Macmillan et al., 2009; Prinze, 2008). Both have early childhood programming and as such, their emphasis is on strengthening parenting practices and confidence, not only to prevent child abuse but social and behavioral problems in children as well (Prinze, 2008). Both are also home visitation programs delivered by especially trained nurses and/or family support workers to first time, socially-disadvantaged, and other high-risk mothers and families, with emphasis on pre-natal, post-natal, and health-related coaching (Prinze, 2008). The NFP and Early Start have consistently performed to reduce rates in reported cases of physical abuse and child neglect while giving additional benefits on maternal and child health (Macmillan, 2008; Macmillan et al., 2009).
In summary, the long-term consequences of child abuse on social behavior, mental health, academic performance, and future employment are grave enough to warrant investment in early intervention programs. The success of the Nurse-Family Relationship and Early Start Programs in reducing the rates of reported physical and child neglect abuse cases suggests that home visitation or associated programs could be a significant approach to impact the prevention of other types of child abuse.… [Read More]
Child Abuse in England
The bruises on Clara's upper arms are indicative of something serious that the health visitor, if she, indeed, has been seeing her for two and a half years, should have noted or anticipated. The account given is so scanty that the general information can hardly be gleaned. The other family members should have been asked or given in the account, even if the health visitor does not know the family very well. The barest family statistics could still have been obtained.
Besides Christine, who are the other adults in the family? And how many more children are in it? What is the socioeconomic status of this family? Its culture mix? Christine's educational achievement, her family and work background, her current aspirations and view of her present condition must be obtained. So too the views of the other members be secured.
The bruises on Clara's shoulders would not be visible if the pressure were not hard enough to imprint and create the bruises. It may or may not be the first time to be impressed, the likelihood is greater that this is not the first. The health worker should not have advised Christine to just walk away from Clara if the girl frustrated her or Christine would lose her temper. At Clara's age, leaving her alone can be dangerous and children her age are really difficult to manage. They need much guidance at this age and should not be left alone. What the health worker should have told Christine was to confine her disapproval to Clara's wrong acts out of discipline and not out of revenge or desire to inflict pain.
The head or breadwinner of the family should be sketched out. What does he do? What is his behavior towards his wife and each of the children? What is his family background? Is he aware of the bruises found on Clara's shoulders? It is unlikely that he is completely…… [Read More]
Child Abuse: Child Abuse Reporting
Who are some of the individuals who are mandated to report suspected child abuse? What are some of the conditions under which mandated reporters must report?
The California Child Abuse and Reporting Act (CANRA) places upon community members the responsibility to report suspected cases of child abuse involving children in their care, or those with whom their interact in the course of their work (McCulloch, 2012). The overriding aim of CANRA is to protect vulnerable children from neglect and abuse by unscrupulous persons. Initially, the number of people who qualified as mandated reporters was very limited; numerous amendments have, however, been made to the law over the years, expanding the ranks of mandated reporters. It would be prudent to mention, however, that community members not recognized as mandatory reporters can also file reports of suspected child abuse although they are not required to by the law. Individuals currently recognized as mandatory reporters by the California Penal Code (PC) Section 11165.7 include:
i) Clergy members -- religious practitioners, rabbis, ministers, priests and any employees of recognized religious institutions (McCulloch, 2012). The law obliges clergy members to report all child abuse claims, including those made under penitentiary provisions if they suspect that the life or well-being of the affected child is in danger as a result of the abuse (McCulloch, 2012).
ii) Educators -- teachers and teachers' aides in both private and public schools, classified school employees, child welfare supervisors, Head Start Program teachers, certificated pupil personnel workers, and State Department or County Office of Education employees whose duties require direct supervision of, and contact with children
iii) Law enforcement officers -- humane society officers, animal control officers, fire fighters (except voluntary fire fighters), peace officers, and employees of county welfare, county probation, county sheriff's and police departments (McCulloch, 2012).
iv) Medical and mental health professionals -- physical therapists, chiropractors, dentists, physicians, paramedics, custodial officers, nurses, psychological assistants, marriage and family counselors, clinical social workers, and any other health professionals whose duties require direct supervision of, and contact with children (McCulloch, 2012).
v) Child visitation monitors -- any individual whose duty is to monitor conversations between a minor and another person, especially when the conversation in question is…… [Read More]
Child Abuse: Child Abuse Reporting
Describe some questions or observations you might make to determine if a child abuse report is in order
The California Child Abuse Reporting Law imposes upon mandated reporters a duty to make immediate reports to the relevant agencies in case they suspect or are aware of a neglectful or abusive situation involving a child in their care or one that they interact with in the course of their work (McCulloch, 2012). In their report, the reporter is required to provide as much information as they possibly can about the affected child's situation including the extent and nature of their injuries, conditions in the child's home environment, their age, name, addresses, as well as the addresses and names of the person(s) responsible for the child (McCulloch, 2012). In the State of California, such a report must be filed at the sheriff's department, any police department, the county welfare department, or any probation department designated by the county to receive such reports (McCulloch, 2012).
There are a number of red flags/observations that a reporter could look out for if they suspect a case of child abuse and think that a child abuse report could be in order. First, if the child's home environment is within reach, they could look out for environmental indicators of abuse or neglect such as extreme filth or dirt; toxins, medications or dangerous weapons placed within the reach of children; hazardous conditions such as animal waste, faulty electrical features and broken windows; and choking hazards left within children's reach (McCulloch, 2012). These are obvious signs of neglect by the child's parent or caretaker, placing the child at a high risk of physical injury.
In addition to environmental indicators, the reporter could observe the parent's or caregiver's behavior or attitude towards the child. This would be the first step towards knowing whether the child's caretaker is the same person responsible for the abuse (McCulloch, 2012). Signs to look out for in this case would include an apparent lack of understanding for the child and what they are capable (or not capable) of doing at their age. The…… [Read More]