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Mental abuse is "when one person uses another person's insecurities, phobias and fear to force another to do as they wish," such as "withholding various items, feelings, affection, or personal and physical needs such as food, sleep, water, comfort, warmth and even elimination" as a way to get the victim to do the abuser's bidding (Four pp). Children of mental abuse are suffer from depression, emotional withdrawal, low self-esteem, sleep disorders, or suicide, and may develop self-mutilating behaviors or become socially isolated (Four pp).
Again, therapy with a licensed psychotherapist and psychologist is necessary for children of mental abuse (Four pp).
Physical abuse is the most obvious and most easily diagnosable type of child abuse, and is defined as "one or more episodes of aggressive behavior usually resulting in physical injury with possible damage to internal organs, sense organs, the central nervous system or the muscle or bones of another…
Works Cited child abuse. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition; 2/24/2005; pp.
Child Abuse and Neglect. Medical Library; pp. http://www.medem.com/MedLB/article_detaillb.cfm?article_ID=ZZZ3S3DRUDC&sub_cat=355
Thompson, Ericka P. "Child sex abuse still under-reported."
Indianapolis Recorder; 11/12/2004; pp.
Hilton, Lisette. "Skin signs of child abuse: Demographic and ethnic traditions aside, doctors must examine at wounds and draw conclusions."
"Although it is extremely important when interviewing children about alleged abuse to determine whether the abuse was single or repeated… we have little information about how children judge the frequency of events… [and] overall children were very accurate at judging the frequency of a single event, but much less so for repeated events." (Sharman, et al., 2011).
Department of Health & Human Services (HHS) reports that in the year 2010 there were approximately 3.3 million referrals of "suspected abuse pertaining to six million children" in the United States (Samuels, 2011). The HHS data reflects that many children are being abused through neglect, through physical abuse (including sexual abuse), or through medical or educational neglect, and other forms of abuse. This paper delves into the problems associated with child abuse, the actions that professionals should take, the way to tell abuse has been done, and the overall impact on…
Boyce, Cheryl Anne. (2008). Reauthorization of the Child Abuse Protection and Treatment
Act (CAPTA). Child Abuse and Neglect Program. U.S. Department of Health & Human
Services. Retrieved March 7, 2012, from http://www.hhs.gov .
Cheung, Monit, Boutte-Queen, Needha McNeil. (2010). Assessing the Relative Importance of the Child Sexual Abuse Interview Protocol Items to Assist child Victims in Abuse
Child Abuse in Literature
Child maltreatment entails all types of neglect and abuse of a child below eighteen years by caregivers, parents or any other person (Crosson-Tower, 2006). Child abuse encompasses all forms of physical abuse, emotional abuse, sexual abuse, neglect or child exploitation that causes potential or actual harm to a child's well-being, dignity and development (Smith & Fong, 2004). According to Scannapieco & Connell-Carrick (2005), child maltreatment is a stern problem capable of causing harmful effects on a child victim. Scannapieco & Connell-Carrick (2005) confirmed that many children experience severe beatings, sexual abuse, neglect and even killed by a parent or other people taking guardianship of children. In the modern world, the media highlight numerous stories of children suffering severely in the hands of their caregivers and parents (Howe, 2005). Evidently, parents place their children in closets without giving them food; others drown in the bathtubs,…
Beckett, C. (2007). Child Protection. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage
Berrick, J.D. (2008). Take Me Home: Protecting America's Vulnerable Children and Families. New York: Oxford University Press.
Boyd-Franklin, N. (2009). Black Families in Therapy. New York: Guilford.
Crosson-Tower, C. (2006). A Clergy Guide to Child Abuse and Neglect. Cleveland: Pilgrim Press.
Child abuse can be referred to as a physical, sexual or an emotional state of harm that is inflicted upon the child. There are various types and forms that can be undertaken by the abuser which may involve hitting, shaking, beating, burning or even biting the child in the physical form, Sexual forms of child abuse may involve incest, molestation, touching and exposing the child to sexual acts that may not be appropriate for them and they may not want to be involved in. The emotional states of such harm include scolding, tormenting, abusing, humiliating and insulting them. Some people also argue that neglecting the child's needs will also be categorized under abuse in some cases, for instance not giving them water and food, depriving them of shelter, clothing and other such necessities of life which also inflict harm upon the child in one way or the other. This phenomenon…
McCauley, Michelle. Child Abuse: A Global View. Greenwood Press, 2001.
Child and Elder Abuse
The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) publishes a website called healthychildren.org. -- and the section called "hat do I need to know about child abuse?" provides excellent information on the particulars of child abuse. The Healthy Children site points out that child abuse "…is common," and hence, with all the reports on television and in the newspapers about children being mistreated, it should cause parents, guardians, teachers and others to wonder if their child is truly safe. The advice given to teachers and parents is not to become "…overprotective" and not to make the child frightened of the unknown. But rather, to recognize the "actual risks" that are out there. And for those who interact with the child (like teachers, friends and parents of friends) it is important to become familiar with "signs of abuse" so that if indeed a child is suffering from…
Healthy Children. (2013). What do I need to know about child abuse? Retrieved October 17,
2013, from http://www.healthychildren.org .
Medline Plus. (2011). Elder Abuse. Retrieved October 17, 2013, from http://www.nim.nih.gov.
National Center on Elder Abuse. (2011). 15 Questions & Answers About Elder Abuse. Retrieved October 17, 2013, from http://www.elderabusecenter.org .
First, briefly define the esiliency Model. Then, using this video as your case study: What concepts from the esiliency Model can you identify that were illustrated in their stories? Describe and explain. Considerations include: Did you hear any recurring themes mentioned by more than one of these young adults? What did they describe as being most valuable to them during their foster care experiences? Consider some of their recommendations: what treatment model(s) do their suggestions fall into?
This video can be accessed at: http://www.kidscount.org/kidscount/video/voices.html
In the late twentieth century, research conducted with the aim of identifying the factors that render young individuals at risk of developing various issues like mental illnesses and drug abuse generated interest in the field of resilience (Trotter, 2002). Studies revealed that individuals exposed to various risk factors eventually developed into healthy and productive society members (Masten & Powell, 2003). The studies later focused…
Allen, S.F., & Tracy, E.M. (2008). Developing student knowledge and skills for home-based social work practice. Journal of Social Work Education, 44 (1), 125-143.
Chance, T., & Scannapieco, M. (2002). Ecological Correlates of Child Maltreatment: Similarities
and Differences Between Child Fatality and Nonfatality Cases. Child and Adolescent
Social Work Journal. 19(2).
This research investigates the connection amongst childhood abuse as well as neglect and sexual risk conduct in middle adult years and whether psychosocial aspects (risky romances, affective signs and symptoms, alcohol and drug use, along with delinquent as well as illegal conduct) mediate this connection (Wilson and Widom, 2011). I was attracted to this article because it offered definitive proof about how child abuse and neglect can cause HIV risk as well as negative sexual behavior later in life.
Many studies have connected childhood maltreatment with high-risk sexual conduct in the future (e.g., Bensley, Van Eenwyk, & Simmons, 2000; Berenson, Wiemann, & McCombs, 2001). Nevertheless, the vast majority of research has focused solely on sexual maltreatment (Senn, Carey, & Vanable, 2008), and quite a few have depended on retrospective reviews of childhood maltreatment. As a possible exception, results from the prospective cohort structure study stated that of those…
Bensley, L.S., Van Eenwyk, J., & Simmons, K.W. (2000). Self-reported childhood sexual and physical abuse and adult HIV-risk behaviors and heavy drinking. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 18, 151 -- 158.
Berenson, A.B., Wiemann, C.M., & McCombs, S. (2001). Exposure to violence and associated health-risk behaviors among adolescent girls. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, 155, 1238 -- 1242.
Briere, J. (1996). A self-trauma model for treating adult survivors of severechild abuse. In J. Briere, L. Berliner, J.A. Bulkley, C. Jenny, & T. Reid (Eds.), The APSAC handbook on child maltreatment (pp. 175 -- 203). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Dube, S.R., Felitti, V.J., Dong, M., Giles, W.H., & Anda, R.F. (2003). The impact of adverse childhood experiences on health problems: Evidence from four birth cohorts dating back to 1900. Preventive Medicine, 37, 268 -- 277.
Child Abuse and Neglect Analysis
The placement agency that I am personally affiliated with is Operation Safehouse which is a transitional living facility for at risk homeless youth ages eighteen to twenty one. There are two primary locations. One is in Riverside, CA and the other is in Thousand Palms, CA (SafeHouse, N.d.). Both locations offer services that include offer education, employment, case management, therapy, and life skills for our clients that have entered into our program. It is extremely likely that a high percentage of the individuals who enter into the program have encountered abuse or neglect at some point in their development or recent past. I would personally estimate that roughly one-half to three-fourths of clients meet the criteria for abuse and neglect. Most of these individuals come from environments that are too toxic for them to stay so they seek help from outside resources. For many of…
Academy, C.T. (N.d.). About Child Trauma Academy. Retrieved from Child Trauma Academy: http://childtrauma.org/
CTA. (N.d.). About ChildTrauma Academy. Retrieved from ChildTrauma Academy:
Child abuse maltreatment limited an age occur infant, toddler, preschool, school-age years. Choose age groups (infant, toddler, preschool, school age) discuss types abuse age. Discuss warning signs physical emotional assessment findings nurse child abuse.
eporting suspected child abuse: The nurses' dilemma
Accusing a parent or other relative of child abuse is a serious allegation, and nurses are understandably often reluctant to take such a step. Common signs of child abuse in school-age children include (but are not limited to): "bruises, fractures or burns that are not adequately explained" (such as cigarette burns); sexually explicit comments by the child that are not age-appropriate; unexplained genital or rectal injuries; sexually-transmitted diseases; abnormal behavior or behavioral changes; reported nightmares; simulation of sexual acts by him or herself or with peers; psychosomatic headaches and stomachaches; withdrawal from peers; depression; low self-esteem; "indiscriminate affection toward all adults;" signs of neglect; inadequately dress; being unclean; "poor…
Albrandt, B. (2002). Turning in the client: Mandatory child abuse reporting requirements and the criminal defense of battered women. Texas Law Review, 81(2), 655-678.
Klass, Perry. (1989). Child abuse: The interrogation warning signs. New York Times.
Medora, N.P., Wilson, S., & Larson, J.H. (2001). Attitudes toward parenting strategies, potential for child abuse, and parental satisfaction of ethnically diverse low-income U.S.
mothers. The Journal of Social Psychology, 141(3), 335-48.
What is child abuse
Every explanation of child abuse and abandonment takes for granted a description of the child. The Convention on the ights of the Child stipulates that a child is "any human who has not attained the age of 18 years except if the law pertaining to child majority is reached at an earlier age." (Child abuse & neglect) Child abuse and abandonment, at times also ascribed to as child ill treatment has been explained in the World eport on Violence and Health as: Every type of bodily and/or psychological mistreatment, sexual mistreatment, abandonment or inattentive behavior or money-making or other nature of abuses that leads to absolute or likely impairment to the well-being of the child, existence, growth or self-esteem in the perspective of a relationship of dependability, confidence or authority. (Child abuse & neglect)
In the wide meaning of the child ill-treatment, five sub-categories…
Ann Black, Cheryl; DeBlassie, Richard. R. (Spring, 1993) "Sexual abuse in male children and adolescents: indicators, effects, and treatments. Adolescene" www.findarticles.com/p/articles / mi_m2248/is_n109_v28/ai_13885848
"Child Abuse Can Last a Lifetime. Facts of Life: Issue Briefings for Health Reporters" (March 1999) Volume: 4, No. 2. Retrieved from http://www.cfah.org/factsoflife/vol4no2.cfm Accessed on 5 November, 2004
'Child abuse & neglect" World Health Organization. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/neglect/en / Accessed on 5 November, 2004
'Childhood Sex Abuse Impacts Adult Relationships" (1997) Retrieved from www.scienceblog.com/community / older/1997/A/199700299.html Accessed on 5 November, 2004
There are many kinds of abuse that are perpetrated against children, and this paper delves into those issues as well as the history of child abuse and the situations children find themselves in where abuse occurs. Child abuse is a national tragedy, a shameful legacy in the United States and elsewhere, but the first step in stopping the abuse of children is in understanding the problem.
Definition of child abuse: The National Association of Counsel for Children (NACC). explains that there is "…no one commonly accepted definition of 'child abuse and neglect.'" However, the federal government defines child abuse and neglect in the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act as:
"…the physical and mental injury, sexual abuse, negligent treatment, or maltreatment of a child under the age of 18 by a person who is responsible for the child's welfare under circumstances which indicate that the child's health or…
Child Welfare Information Gateway. (2007). Recognizing child Abuse and Neglect: Signs and Symptoms. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved December 29,
2011, from http://www.childwelfare.gov .
Cohen, Judith a., and Mannarino, Anthony P. (1998). Factors That Mediate Treatment Outcome
Of Sexually Abused Preschool Children: Six -- and 12-Month Follow-up. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. Vol. 37, 44-51.
Historical aspects and statistics of child abuse as well as its relevance to the New York City police department-NYPD today.
Child abuse is creating harm to a child or neglecting a child by another individual, whether it is an adult or a child. Child abuse can be in the nature of physical, verbal, emotional or sexual or by means of neglect as well. Abuse might result in serious forms of injury towards the child and might also lead to death. (Child Abuse: keepkidshealthy.com) Even though child abuse is considered to be an alarming social problem in the United States, yet the complex nature of its beginnings have just being started to be completely recognized. (Better understanding of Child Abuse and Neglect needed) It needs to be understood that most of the historical families had at one point of time practiced infanticide, erotic beating and that of incest. (The…
Not surprisingly, many child abuse victims consistently show poor academic performance and are more likely to have lower educational achievements than their non-abused peers (Lansford et al., 2002; Perez & Widom, 1994, in Gilbert et al., 2009). They are more likely to receive special education as well (Jonson-eid et al., in Gilbert et al., 2009). Consequently, many of them end up in menial and semi-skilled employment, both of which have long-lasting economic consequences for the affected individuals (Gilbert et al., 2009).
In light of the high burden and serious long-term consequences of child abuse, the need for effective intervention programs cannot be overemphasized. A broad range of these currently exists, but with a few exceptions, their effectiveness is still unknown. However, there are two outstanding programs that have been widely recognized, especially for preventing physical abuse and neglect. These are the Nurse-Family elationship (NFP) and Early Start programs…
Fagan, Abigail a. (2005). The Relationship between Adolescent Physical Abuse and Criminal Offending: Support for an Enduring and Generalized Cycle of Violence. Journal of Family Violence, 20(5), 279-290. Retrieved May 13, 2009, from Academic Research Library database. (Document ID: 957789611).
Gilbert, Ruth, Cathy Spatz Widom, Kevin Browne, David Fergusson, Elspeth Webb,
Staffan Janson. (2009). Burden and consequences of child maltreatment in high-income countries. The Lancet, 373(9657), 68-81. Retrieved May 13, 2009, from Academic
Research Library database. (Document ID: 1627420331).
In 1999 Herr & Conrad identified a number of areas of activity as particularly appropriate for primary prevention of physical abuse. Tackling the effects of poverty, or enabling parents to cope with them, are key components of many primary prevention interventions.
While it is particularly difficult to demonstrate the cost-effectiveness of primary preventive strategies, this problem eases as we target interventions at those most at risk of developing particular problems. Essentially this is the rationale for screening groups at high risk within health services. Of course, the benefit of this approach depends on our ability to accurately identify those at risk, and to be able to provide effective preventive services. Our improved, as yet imperfect knowledge, of some of the factors which interact to increase the risk of child abuse and neglect, affords an opportunity to design interventions which, at least conceptually, have a chance of effecting change in areas…
Pelton, L.H. (2008). Child abuse and neglect: The myth of classlessness. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 48, 608-617.
Wolock, L, & Horowitz, B. (October 1984). Child maltreatment as a social problem: The neglect of neglect. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 54, 530-543.
While both formal and informal services at the sites are geared to preventing child abuse and neglect, program case managers sometimes find that they need to take stronger, more drastic measures to ensure a child's safety and well-being. Case managers in a number of the programs call on child protective services workers for informal consultation and help when they are worried about a family, and several said that they had made child protective referrals (hotlined a family) at least once (Pelton, 2008. Pg 611). The informal consultation appears to go both ways: Child protective services workers in several locations reportedly ask the site case managers to keep an eye on families which they worry about but cannot serve themselves, given their caseload of even more urgent crises.
The worker must be able to cross professional boundaries to meet a wide variety of family needs. In order to serve the child, he or she must also develop a relationship with the whole family, since the child's well-being is often intimately bound up with the well-being of other family members. No agency attempting to move in a two-generational direction should expect the change to be easy (Wolock, 1984. Pg 530). Many of the obstacles experienced by welfare agencies apply just as forcefully to the other large service systems for poor children and families. For example, difficulties of mission plague both schools and child welfare agencies that consider reaching out to parents, just as they hamper welfare agencies that consider reaching out to children. In the school setting, teachers, administrators, and elected overseers may worry that a mission of academic excellence will be compromised by too much attention to the multiple needs that children and their families bring into the classroom. For child welfare agencies, the conflict is even starker: In an agency whose mission is to protect children, many of whom are in urgent danger, how can it be legitimate to pay comparable attention to their parents? Similarly, each system suffers isolation from other service deliverers and lack of expertise in the multiple problems of families. Each experiences its own set of demands on workers and on the organization as a whole, demands that must be balanced against the needs of families in any successful solution.
Parents and/or caregivers at high risk for abuse are characterized as having unsatisfied needs, difficulty in forming adequate interpersonal relationships (friends, associates, fellow employees), unrealistic expectations from the child and a lack of nuturing experience which may involve neglect or abuse in the abuser's own childhood. In regards to the child being abused, several predisposing factors include the temperament, personality and activity levels of the child, sensitivity to parental domination and a need for special physical or emotional care resulting from an illness.
Interestingly, on a psychological level, recent research has shown that child abuse may be closely linked with developing schizophrenia, for as ick Nauert relates, quoting from researcher Paul Hammersley of the University of Manchester in England, "two-thirds of people diagnosed as schizophrenic have suffered physical or sexual abuse" as a child. This is based on a number of studies which revealed "childhood... sexual or physical abuse in…
Nauert, Rick. (2006). "Child Abuse Can Cause Schizophrenia." Internet. Retrieved at http://psychcentral.com/news/2006/06/13/child-abuse-can-cause-schizophrenia .
What is Child Abuse and Neglect?" (2006). Child Welfare Information Gateway. Internet. Retrieved at http://www.childwelfare.gov /pubs/factsheets/whatiscan.cfm' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
The findings from Experiment 2 indicate that maltreated children's lower recognition accuracy is not secondary to an impairment of their ability to detect physical differences between facial expressions. Rather, maltreatment seems to affect children's understanding of particular emotional displays (p. 684). Relationship with Peers and Parents: A study conducted by Burack et al. In 2007 assessed the ability of maltreated school-age children and adolescents to understand the thoughts, feelings, and points-of-view of others. Level of egocentrism and social perspective-taking coordination were assessed in a group of 49 chronically maltreated and 49 demographically matched non-maltreated children. The findings revealed that despite opportunities for monitored peer interactions and contact with supportive adult models in therapeutic group home settings and in treatment programs, maltreated children and adolescents were more egocentric and delayed in their social perspective-taking development than their non-maltreated peers and that they reported lower levels of global self-worth. However, one potentially…
Child Abuse & acial Inequality
This brief report focuses the social conflict perspective of sociology while focusing on the racial inequalities within the reporting and handling of child abuse cases, both with the children themselves as well as the parents that stand accused. Indeed, the reporting and handling of these cases is deemed by many to be disparate, unfair or non-existent as it pertains to racial minorities and their children. The trends of this subject matter will be explored over a series of years of American history.
Per the commonly held and accept facets of the conflict perspective, racial inequality is not what it is was prior to the Civil War or prior to the Civil ights era that culminated in the 1960's in the United States, but problems still do certainly exist. Indeed, as recently as the 1980's, a survey that was conducted that asked the white…
McGuire, T.G., & Miranda, J. (2008). New Evidence Regarding Racial & Ethnic
Disparities In Mental Health: Policy Implications. Health Affairs, 27(2), 393-403.
Osborne, C., Manning, W.D., & Smock, P.J. (2007). Married and Cohabiting Parents'
Both are needed in order to create the right balance of concern and caring that is required in raising well-adjusted and happy children. When love and discipline are mixed together correctly, a child will be mentally healthy, self-assured, responsible, self-controlled, and prepared for their own parenting experience (Child Abuse, 2010).
Since the mistreatment of a child is a complex problem with a massive amount of causes, an approach to prevention must react to a range of different needs. One of these approaches is that of support programs. The reason for support programs that are aimed at new parents is to prepare these individuals for the job of parenting. Such programs often include support during both the pre- and postnatal periods in order to ease the complicatedness that is associated with having a new infant in the home. Prenatal and postnatal medical care is clearly very important, particularly since low birth…
Campbell, Eleanor T. (2005). Child Abuse Recognition, Reporting and Prevention: A Culturally
Congruent Approach. Retrieved May 16, 2010, from bNet Web site:
Child Abuse. (2010). Retrieved May 16, 2010, from e-Medicine Health Web site:
These stories all make child abuse seem commonplace. While child abuse is still a problem in the United States, it is not one that is so common that people forget it. Everyone considers child abuse a heinous crime against children. Grassroots organizations are forming all over the country to protect children from child abuse and to provide them, their friends and family members with support. Many of these including ChildAbuse.org are operating online to provide children and their families with greater access to information and support.
Today there are even books available written for children by children, including Jessie Ottenweller's tale, "Please Tell" which is geared for children ages nine to twelve, as this is the age most children first experience some forms of abuse including physical or sexual abuse. What all of these people, books and organizations have in common is one thing. They want to eliminate the stigma…
ChildAbuse.org, "Changing Lives, Giving Hope. Child Abuse in the U.S. Retrieved December 12, 2007, http://www.childabuse.org/
Hopper, Jim. Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources. June, 2007. Retrieved December 12, 2007: http://www.jimhopper.com/abstats/
I'm Not So Desperate Any More; She's Beaten the Stigma of Child Abuse - and Finally Found a Man." Veronica Parker Meets a Reborn Teri Hatcher, Daily Mail, London, June 9, 2007, no page number.
Mullen, P.E., Martin, J.L., Anderson, J.C., Romans, S.E., and Herbison, GP. The Long-
Child Abuse: Child Abuse eporting
Who are some of the individuals who are mandated to report suspected child abuse? What are some of the conditions under which mandated reporters must report?
The California Child Abuse and eporting Act (CANA) places upon community members the responsibility to report suspected cases of child abuse involving children in their care, or those with whom their interact in the course of their work (McCulloch, 2012). The overriding aim of CANA is to protect vulnerable children from neglect and abuse by unscrupulous persons. Initially, the number of people who qualified as mandated reporters was very limited; numerous amendments have, however, been made to the law over the years, expanding the ranks of mandated reporters. It would be prudent to mention, however, that community members not recognized as mandatory reporters can also file reports of suspected child abuse although they are not required to by the…
California Department of Education. (2015). Child Abuse Identification and Reporting Guidelines. The California Department of Education. Retrieved June 23, 2015 from http://www.cde.ca.gov/ls/ss/ap/childabusereportingguide.asp
Child Welfare Information Gateway. (2013). Making and Screening Reports of Child Abuse and Neglect. The Child Welfare Information Gateway. Retrieved 20 June, 2015 from https://www.childwelfare.gov/pubPDFs/repproc.pdf
Child Welfare Information Gateway. (2014). Penalties for Failure to Report and False Reporting of Child Abuse and Neglect. Child Welfare Information Gateway. Retrieved June 22, 2015 from https://www.childwelfare.gov/pubPDFs/report.pdf
Cudeman, R. (2006). Minor Consent, Confidentiality and Child Abuse Reporting in California. The National Center for Youth Law. Retrieved June 21, 2015 from http://www.californiacasa.org/Downloads/Minor_Consent_Report_Download.pdf
Child Abuse: Child Abuse eporting
Describe some questions or observations you might make to determine if a child abuse report is in order
The California Child Abuse eporting Law imposes upon mandated reporters a duty to make immediate reports to the relevant agencies in case they suspect or are aware of a neglectful or abusive situation involving a child in their care or one that they interact with in the course of their work (McCulloch, 2012). In their report, the reporter is required to provide as much information as they possibly can about the affected child's situation including the extent and nature of their injuries, conditions in the child's home environment, their age, name, addresses, as well as the addresses and names of the person(s) responsible for the child (McCulloch, 2012). In the State of California, such a report must be filed at the sheriff's department, any police department, the…
Child Welfare Information Gateway. (2013). Making and Screening Reports of Child Abuse and Neglect. The Child Welfare Information Gateway. Retrieved 20 June, 2015 from https://www.childwelfare.gov/pubPDFs/repproc.pdf
Corby, B., Shemmings, D. & Wilkins, D. (2012). Child Abuse: An Evidence Base for Confident Practice. (4th ed.). Berkshire, UK: McGraw Hill
DCFS. (2015). Resources for Parents. The Los Angeles County Department of Children and Family Services. Retrieved June 22, 2015 from http://lacdcfs.org/forparents/index.html
McCulloch, L. (2012). The California Child Abuse and Neglect Reporting Law: Issues and Answers for Mandated Reporters. Rady Children's Hospital, San Diego. Retrieved June 21, 2015 from http://mandatedreporterca.com/images/pub132.pdf
Child Abuse eporting
The author of this report has been asked to create a report surrounding the subject of child abuse, what is legally required from an agency standpoint it comes to the same, confidentiality rules and so forth. The pertinent questions that will be asked are centered on a case study where an eleven-year-old boy reveals that he has been subject to words and behavior and the latter of those two is clearly illegal and abusive. The author will describe why it is necessary for the author (from an agency standpoint) to report the behavior, why it will be necessary to deal with breach of confidentiality with William (and the "how" behind the same) and how the author of this report would make up the report based on the totality of the circumstances and the facts. Finally, the author will fill out a real child abuse reporting form modeled…
Child Welfare. (2015). Mandatory Reporters of Child Abuse and Neglect.
Childwelfare.gov. Retrieved 24 June 2015, from https://www.childwelfare.gov/pubPDFs/manda.pdf#page=1&view=Professionals
Required to Report
Lewis, T.E., Klettke, B., & Day, A. (2014). The Influence of Medical and Behavioral
Stress among parents is one main cause of neglect of children. Among them the family's financial status is one of the key factors that cause child neglect. Children from poor families are most of the times not fully provided for by their parents. This is due to lack of funds to support their children and thus make them miss out on some essentials in life.
Another cause of child abuse is different social and cultural practices. People's beliefs can also be a cause of child abuse. Children are physically abused when they are brutally hit by their parents in the name of disciplining them. 'Spare the rod spoil the child' this is a phrase that most people have misinterpreted and have ended up when inducing punishment to the children.
Domestic violence is also another cause of child abuse. When both parents are fighting at times one of the parents, in…
Bruises are the most common injury; the pattern, shape and location should be noted, because certain instruments such as belt or hanger will make a specific mark on the body. Those over boney areas such as the knee and elbow are frequently accidental. Areas that are in protected and padded areas, such as the face ad buttocks, should be of concern. Lacerations and coloring will give an indication of timing. Blood clotting time and platelet count should be ordered to rule out other reasons for bruising.
Bite marks are a concern due to infection, and if they are caused by an animal or a human (child or adult). The most common cause of burns is scalding from hot liquid. About 10 to 25% of all burns are abuse, and most occur in children under three. Again, pattern, location and characteristics must be noted. Accidental burns normally leave an irregular pattern…
The initial reporter of the instances of abuse and neglect is often a teacher or care provider who may want to be involved in the process of aiding the child in CPS, since he or she may have seen a history of such poor care directed to the child. Additionally, the CPS intake worker, supervisor, and CPS investigator should ideally function in a unified manner. The intake worker is the one who receives the initial call for abuse and makes a risk assessment, and works directly with the reporter, while the CPS supervisor consults with the intake worker in regards to history and may send out the CPS investigator who interviews the child and his or her family. Effective cooperation between these individuals, which may be aided by law enforcement authorities, requires few egos involved nad even fewer contradictions in prescribed courses of action for the child.
Differential response is…
Schene, P. (2008). Differential Response to Reports of Child Abuse and Neglect. Child Welfare Information Gateway.
Child Welfare Information Gateway. (2005). Concurrent Planning: What the Evidence Shows.
Studies like the one by Greenfield and Marks are therefore extremely important in terms of its contribution to the general social understanding of what exactly constitutes abuse, risk factors for abuse, and how to prevent it. The risk of negative mental health in adulthood highlights the importance of preventing violence against children; whichever form this may take.
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
The research on child abuse highlight several important issues and gaps. There remains a qualitative gap in terms of investigating specific family relationships, histories, and problematic factors that may lead to either chronic or occasional violence against children. Despite recent research, much can still be done to address the nature and long-term effects of psychological violence against children. Finally, there is an important gap in terms of creating an organized body of research on the different types of violence that might be perpetrated against children, and the specific long-term effects…
Child Abuse and Neglect
Juvenile Courts vs. Criminal Courts: Tackling Child Abuse Cases
The Juvenile Court is a sub-division of the Superior court, which handles cases of child abuse and neglect under its Child Dependency department. The Juvenile Court often intervenes to protect children where there have allegations made of abuse and neglect upon the family. It can not only remove children from their homes and place them in foster care but also can terminate parental rights and create new ones. Government agencies and social services are usually involved if a child is removed from his/her home, which are then responsible for the child until he/she is placed in the care of suitable relatives or with foster family, which are by law required to be monitored regularly as per The Federal Adoption Assistance and Child Welfare Act of (Public Law, 96-272).
Criminal Courts, on the other hand, take on child…
Victims turn to then blame themselves for their situation as well as for breaking up their families. They tend to develop a sense of unwanted-ness if they are transferred from foster home to foster home over the years. There is an element of helplessness in the personality of such a child as he/she doesn't have a say in where they will go next and are unsure whether to build relations with the new family or not, as they don't know how long they would remain with them. Children are often taught that home is a safe place. If a child is abused and neglected at home, they do not have a sense of security anywhere they go. This can create problems for the child not in adapting in a foster home but also with the rest of the adult world.
These cases then can even result in these victims resorting to alcohol, sleeping a lot and trying not thinking about their problems. According to a government funded study, victims of childhood abuse are more likely to grow up into committing sex crimes such as prostitution or becoming juvenile runaways (Widsom, 1995).
A child abuse essay outline should focus on identifying the main purpose of the essay in the outline’s introduction. The main purpose can best be stated at the end of the introduction, which is where you will typically find an essay’s thesis statement. Once you have plugged that in to your essay outline template, you can walk backwards by indicating the main points that support your thesis. Then plug in a “hook”—a neat little fact or anecdote that will get the reader’s attention.
Each successive section of the outline will build off your thesis statement and reinforce it with supporting details. Three or more paragraphs of supporting evidence should suffice to bear out the merits of your thesis. See our template and example outline below for more ideas!
Child Abuse Essay Outline Template
a. Pose a problem to the reader that is particularly evocative relating to child…
American SPCC. (2020). National child maltreatment statistics. Retrieved from https://americanspcc.org/child-abuse-statistics/
Corruption. (2018). Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved from https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/corruption/
There have been widespread writings regarding the promotion of children’s rights to support their well-being, development, as well as capacity to realize maximum potential ever since the 1960s (Bruyere, 2010). It is a common human dignity value that people get to possess indisputable rights. An important issue in child activism, however, is establishing the best rights extension to kids in the milieu of their need for utmost protection, partly since kids do not possess basic rights and also partly since they lack the competency to settle on the best decisions for their best interest. There is, therefore, the considerable debate concerning the suitable protection for kids, how far a state should or can go in ensuring these rights are granted to kids, and who sits in the best position to make certain decisions regarding the best interest of kids when guardians or parents are not capable of…
Cascardi, M., Brown, C., & Shpiegel, S. (2015). Where have we been and where are we going? A conceptual framework for child advocacy. SAGE. Retrieved from https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/2158244015576763
Ezell, M. (2013). Advocacy in the human services. USA: Cengage Learning.
Feinberg, J. (1971). Legal paternalism. Canadian Journal of Philosophy, 1, 105-124.Melton, G. B. (2011). Young children’s rights. Encyclopedia of Early Childhood Development. Retrieved from http://www.child-encyclopedia.com/en-ca/home.html
Myers, J. E. B. (2008). A short history of child protection in America. Family Law Quarterly, 42, 449-463.
Rosenthal, H. (2003). Human Services Dictionary. New York NY: Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
Royea, A. J., & Appl, D. (2009). Every voice matters: The important of advocacy. Early Childhood Education Journal, 37, 89-91. Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10643-009-0335-y
Schenk, K., & Williamson, J. (2005). Ethical Approaches to Gathering Information from Children and Adolescents in International Settings: Guidelines and Resources. USA: The Population Council Inc.
Sexual Assault Task Force. (2016). Confidentiality and privilege. Retrieved from http://oregonsatf.org
Child Abuse and Corporal Punishment
1. According to Barnett et al. (2011), there are mild to serious traumatic brain injuries that could result from the violent shaking of an infant. The shaken baby syndrome, as the authors point out, is one such traumatic brain injury. On the other hand, Munchausen by Proxy could be described as yet another form of child abuse in which case a caregiver falsifies symptoms (psychological or physical) in a child to medical personnel (Barnett et al., 2011). This a caregiver does in an attempt to meet his or her psychological needs (Barnett et al., 2011). Lastly, we have Neonaticide which according to Miller-Perrin and Perrin (2012) is the deliberate move by a mother to kill her new born child soon after birth (i.e. within the first 24 hours following birth).
2. There are some kinds of interventions that I would implement when dealing with the…
Barnett, O.W., Miller-Perrin, C.L. & Perrin, R.D. (2011). Family Violence Across the Lifespan: An Introduction. Washington, DC: SAGE Publications.
Miller-Perrin, C.L. & Perrin, R.D. (2012). Child Maltreatment: An Introduction. Washington, DC: SAGE Publications.
NRS311 – Life Stage Considerations: Child, Adolescent & Family Health
Assessment Task Two: Child Protection Case Study
Young people and children are the most vulnerable groups in society. As a Registered nurse in NSW, I can identify, consult others, and respond to situations where a young person or a child is at risk of harm. Some of the common reasons that predispose young people and children to risk include family and domestic violence, sexual, emotional, and physical neglect. In Fiona's case, the important risk of harm is neglect (NSW Government, 2018b). Fiona burnt part of her feet on the heater three days ago. Susanna, on noticing, cleaned the wound using tap water. She applied papaw ointment and covered it with an adhesive bandage. In this case, the most significant risk is neglect. Under the circumstances, a question suffices to ask where the mother was when Fiona, a three-year-old, got…
ut the result of child abuse, including difficulty in adjusting to society and difficulty in education tend to result in a higher rate of unemployment. In short, child abuse tends to produce the same conditions where child abuse is more likely to occur.
The research shows two vital things, the first being that the number of cases of child abuse are exceedingly high, and two, that the number of cases are increasing. With the amount of money being spent on child abuse prevention, the question must be asked as to why rates continue to increase. While some believe that the increase is only due to increased awareness, this does not hold true when you consider both the extreme rise in numbers and the rise in the numbers of severely injured children. If sexual abuse cases had been increasing, this could be attributed not necessarily to more incidents, but to…
Carter, Janet. (2000). Domestic violence, child abuse, and youth violence: strategies for prevention and early intervention. San Francisco: Family Violence Prevention Fund.
CUPA: Canadian Union of Public Employees. (1997). What we owe to families: a brief on child welfare in Manitoba. Winnipeg: Canadian Union of Public Employees.
CWLA: Child Welfare League of America. (1997). Child abuse and neglect: a look at the States. Washington, D.C: Child Welfare League of America.
Drucker, Philip. M. (October, 1997). "The consequences of Poverty and Child Maltreatment on IQ Scores." The Vincentian Chair of Social Justice Papers. Vincentian Center Faculty Colloquium Presentation, New York.
Child abuse is one of the most dangerous and serious problems confronting society, perhaps because of the helplessness and innocence of the victims. What is particularly bothersome about child abuse is that it occurs in all income, racial, religious, and ethnic groups and in urban and rural communities. Likewise, there is no uniform definition of what constitutes child abuse, making it difficult to ascertain what prevention and treatment methods are most effective. For example, in Sweden, the law prohibits any physical punishment of children, including spanking. By contrast, in some countries of Asia, Africa, and the Caribbean, parents are expected to punish their children by hitting them.
This paper analyzes and examines the multitude of issues related to child abuse. Part II defines child abuse. In Part III, a history of child abuse is offered. Part IV evaluates why child abuse exists according to control theory and anomy theory. In…
Being a parent isn't easy, offer a helping hand so parents can rest or spend time together. 3) Help yourself. When things pile up take time out so you don't get to the point of feeling overwhelmed or out of control. 4) Don't get frustrated if your baby cries. 5) Get involved, assist in community efforts to develop services to meet the needs of healthy children and families. 6) Promote programs at school to teach children, parents, and teacher's strategies to be safe. 7) Help develop parenting recourses at your local library. 8) Monitor your child's television and video viewing, watching violent behavior can harm children. 9) Volunteer at a local child abuse prevention program. 10) eport suspected abuse or neglect. Education, community involvement and cooperation are significant factors in the effort to prevent children from suffering maltreatment.
Levi, B.H. & Portwood, S.G. (2011, Spring). easonable suspicion of child…
Levi, B.H. & Portwood, S.G. (2011, Spring). Reasonable suspicion of child abuse: Finding a common language. Journal of law, medicine & ethics. Vol. 39, Issue 1, 62-69. Retrieved April 2, 2011 from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=cf7e5f19-4670-42ea-b115-83ef3ac5d27b%40sessionmgr115&vid=4&hid=112
Patton, W.W. (2011). Child protective services -- Histirical overview. State University.com. Retrieved April 2, 2011 from http://education.stateuniversity.com/pages/1828/Child-Protective-Services.html
Ten Ways to Help Prevent Child Abuse. (NDI). Prevent child abuse America. Retrieved April 2, 2011 from http://www.preventchildabuse.org/publications/parents/downloads/ten_ways_to_prevent.pdf
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2010). Child maltreatment 2009. U.S. department of health and human services. Retrieved April 2, 2011 from http://www.acf.hhs.gov/ programs/cb/pubs/cm09/cm09.pdf
As some journalists have brought up, this scandal is evocative of the scandal with the Catholic Church and demonstrates how a marked upheaval in the way universities and institutions are conducted (Hamilton, 2012).
The media, while impartial, can often be a moral compass for the rest of the world. Few people can forget the horrors of the reactions of Penn State's college students when the scandal just broke, upon the firing of Joe Paterno: the media captured how the students rioted the streets, acting out, even turning over a news van. The rest of the world watched in revulsion: these college students, by sympathizing with Paterno, someone who had essentially protected and sheltered a pedophile, these young college students were sympathizing with Sandusky, the pedophile in question. "It's difficult to look at the images of the Penn State University students performing pep rally chants and turning over a media van…
Engel, J. (2012, July 16). Penn State should get death penalty. Retrieved from Foxsports.com: http://msn.foxsports.com/collegefootball/story/penn-state-should-lose-football-privileges-dealth-penalty-in-wake-of-freeh-report-child-sex-abuse-071212/
Hamilton, M. (May, 27 2012). Penn State and Catholic Church Child Sex-Abuse Trials Divide Penn. Public. Retrieved from Dailybeast.com: http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2012/05/27/penn-state-and-catholic-church-child-sex-abuse-trials-divide-penn-public.html
Kane, C. (July, 23 2012). Penn State penalties: $60 million fine, 4-year bowl ban. Retrieved from Chicagotribune.com: http://www.chicagotribune.com/sports/college/ct-spt-0724-penn-state -- 20120724,0,6965116.story
Muskal, M. (2012, June 22). Jerry Sandusky convicted of 45 child sexual abuse charges. Retrieved from LA Times: Jerry Sandusky convicted of 45 child sexual abuse charges
Ashley, O.S., Brady, T.M., & Marsden, M.E. (2003). Effectiveness of substance abuse treatment programming for women: A review. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 29(1), 19.
Bradley, .H., & Corwyn, .F. (2002). Socioeconomic status and child development. Annual eview of Psychology, 371.
Dane, B. (2000). Child welfare workers: An innovative approach for interacting with secondary trauma. Journal of Social Work Education, 36(1), 27.
Dodds, T.L. (2006). Defending America's children: How the current system gets it wrong. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 29(2), 719.
Eisler, . (2000). Tomorrow's children: A blueprint for partnership education in the 21st century. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Garcia, P., & Holt, C.B. (2005, December). Preparing teachers for children in poverty: The Nashville District picks up the mantle for qualified instruction in high-needs schools. School Administrator, 62(11), 22.
Gilbert, N. (1997). Combating child abuse: International perspectives and trends. New York: Oxford University…
Ashley, O.S., Brady, T.M., & Marsden, M.E. (2003). Effectiveness of substance abuse treatment programming for women: A review. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 29(1), 19.
Bradley, R.H., & Corwyn, R.F. (2002). Socioeconomic status and child development. Annual Review of Psychology, 371.
Dane, B. (2000). Child welfare workers: An innovative approach for interacting with secondary trauma. Journal of Social Work Education, 36(1), 27.
Dodds, T.L. (2006). Defending America's children: How the current system gets it wrong. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 29(2), 719.
Pastor's Responsibilities with Child Abuse
Comment by abina:
Pastor's Responsibilities with Child Abuse
It is important for pastors and youth pastors to become familiarized with the child abuse laws in the state in which they serve. Many youth pastors encounter child abuse in their service to their church, and there are specific guidelines that should be followed for reporting child abuse. Failure to report child abuse can result in criminal prosecution for the youth pastor (Hammar, 2010). If a youth pastor gains information about a child being abused in their home environment, he/she must follow the proper protocols for reporting child abuse. The youth pastor should also inform the senior pastor about the abuse.
The senior pastor should ensure that the youth pastor contact the local child protective services and report the abuse. The senior pastor should also ensure the church has procedures for handling child abuse that…
Shelley, M. (1985). Well-Intentioned Dragons: Ministering to Problem People in the Church. Waco, TX: Word.
Unknown (1986). Restoring your Spiritual Passion. Nashville, TN:Oliver-Nelson.
Unknown (1992). Under the Predictable Plant: An Exploration in Vocational Holiness. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans.
Child Abuse in England
The bruises on Clara's upper arms are indicative of something serious that the health visitor, if she, indeed, has been seeing her for two and a half years, should have noted or anticipated. The account given is so scanty that the general information can hardly be gleaned. The other family members should have been asked or given in the account, even if the health visitor does not know the family very well. The barest family statistics could still have been obtained.
esides Christine, who are the other adults in the family? And how many more children are in it? What is the socioeconomic status of this family? Its culture mix? Christine's educational achievement, her family and work background, her current aspirations and view of her present condition must be obtained. So too the views of the other members be secured.
The bruises on Clara's…
1) Ananova. 2002, UN Urges Government to Outlaw Smacking
2) Allen, N. 1992, Making Sense of the Children act 1989, Longman
3) BBC News. 2002. Dentists Asked to Diagnose Child Abuse, UK
4) -, Church Tackles Child Abuse, England
Child abuse and neglect is a highly discussed issue in the present day. For a long time now, the detrimental impacts of child abuse and neglect have been acknowledged. There are significant implications from child abuse and neglect in the United States and it is imperative to come up with the necessary ways of dealing with it. The solution is to have a propagating state program that encompasses poor and underprivileged children. There is also need for family programs that educate and teach households on better child treatment and attaining the necessary skills. Such programs should also be expanded to schools to determine their vulnerabilities and needs.
Child abuse and neglect is a highly debated issue in the contemporary. For a lengthy period now, the detrimental impacts of child abuse and neglect have been acknowledged. Adverse childhood events (ACEs) have been experientially demonstrated to be linked to an assortment of…
Child abuse and neglect recurs with children at home after intervention. (2005, May 23). The Free Library. (2005). Retrieved February 03, 2017 from https://www.thefreelibrary.com/Child abuse and neglect recurs with children at home after...-a0133049592
A research study undertaken by McMaster University Medical Facility steered Professor Harriet Macmillan, Professor of Psychiatry & Behavioural Neurosciences and Pediatrics showed that children that continue being in their homes subsequent to being abused or neglected by their parents, or are taken back to those homes subsequent to intervention by social service institutions are at a high risk for more abuse or neglect in a period of within three years. The conclusion made from examining 163 families with a long-established history of child abuse or neglect is that there is no intervention confirmed or established to decrease the rise of abuse or neglect when the children who have experienced such harsh conditions remain in the home.
The magazine article is pertinent to my paper as it indicates the recurrence of child abuse and neglect.
Cost of child abuse and neglect takes large toll. (2001, May 10). Columbus Medical Association.
Abused and Exploited Children
Child abuse is one of the most unfortunate realities of our society. In a world marked by progress, it is sad that there are still many households where young children are being subjected to violence both physical and otherwise. Child abuse is defined as any non-accidental harm or injury to a child caused by an adult. Despite the presence of numerous child protection services and agencies, children are still regularly facing violence at home which may often lead to fatal injuries. Even though child abuse is commonly known and understood as physical abuse, this is not entirely true. Abuse can occur in other forms as well and we shall now discuss some of the more common forms in which child abuse mars our society.
Define the 4 types of abuse and give 4-5 examples of the most common signs/symptoms of that type of abuse.
Pecora, Peter J, Jensen, Peter S, Romanelli, (2009) Mental Health Services for Children Placed in Foster Care: An Overview of Current Challenges. Child Welfare. Child welfare and well-being. Policy & Practice, Feb, 2009
Shanalingigwa, Abel, O. (2009) Understanding Social and Cultural differences in perceiving child Maltreatment. Accessed online 20th Feb, 2011.
Child Abuse and Neglect
TEATMENT OF PHYSICALLY ABUSIVE FAMILIES
Cognitive behavioral therapy is typically the recommended course of therapy for physically abusive families. Children who reside in such families often experience PTSD as a result of their experiences, and CBT focuses on "re-exposure interventions, education about violence and cognitive restructuring, processing of emotional cues, social problem-solving skills, and parenting interventions" (Vickerman & Margolin 2007). In groups or individually, children are encouraged to re-visit traumatic experiences, talk about them, and to find alternative coping mechanisms to deal with negative emotions. Depending on the nature of the family relationship, family members may also be involved and subjected to individual or family counseling, to enable them to find alternative ways to deal with anger, other than lashing out at other family members.
CBT involves the restructuring of responses, and encouraging those who are aided to think: "I am not responsible for my parents'…
Gaudin, J.M. (1993). Child Neglect: A guide to intervention. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved:
Relapse prevention model. (2012). Therapy corner. Retrieved:
These findings are consistent with those reported in studies of children older than 2 years but extend these findings to children who are spanked beginning at a relatively early age (issow Pp).
In the January 2002 issue of "Journal of Counseling and Development," Lisa Fontes states that Latino parents who engage in harsh physical discipline need help, however, they are far from homogeneous and their needs vary (Fontes Pp). She believes that many are "loving and devoted parents who practice traditional forms of child rearing that may include an authoritarian style and harsh corporal punishment, side by side with high levels of intimacy and support" (Fontes Pp). Fontes states that some Latino parents are often "incorrectly accused of abusing or neglecting their children because non-Latino professionals are puzzled by their unfamiliar yet harmless practices" (Fontes Pp). hile other Latino parents, like parents from other groups, punish their children in ways…
Straus, Murray a. "Spanking and the making of a violent society." Pediatrics;
Fontes, Lisa Aronson. "Child discipline and physical abuse in immigrant Latino families: reducing violence and misunderstandings."
Journal of Counseling and Development; 1/1/2002; Pp.
The second includes verbal and emotional assaults including persistent patterns of belittling, denigrating, scapegoating, and other nonphysical, but clearly hostile or rejecting behaviors, such as repeated threats of beatings, sexual assault, and abandonment. The third, residual, category includes other forms of emotional abuse such as attempted sexual or physical assaults; throwing something at a child but missing; withholding shelter, sleep, or other necessities as punishment, and economic exploitation (p.11).
According to ighthand, Kerr, and Drach (2003), psychological abuse can be technically defined as:
1. Verbal or emotional assault, exemplified by persistent patterns of belittling, denigrating, scapegoating, or other nonphysical but rejecting, hostile, and degrading behaviors.
2. Terrorizing the child, exemplified by threatening to physically hurt, kill, or abandon the child, or by exposing the child to chronic or extreme partner abuse or other forms of violent behaviors.
3. Exploiting or corrupting the child, exemplified by modeling criminal or antisocial behavior;…
Barnett, D., Manly, J.T., and Cicchetti, D. (1994). Defining child maltreatment: the interface between policy and research. Child abuse, child development, and social policy: advances in applied developmental psychology, 8,7-73. New Jersey: Ablex Publishing Corporation.
Calam, R. & Franchi, C. (1987). Child abuse and its consequences. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Grapes, B.J. (2001). Child abuse. California: Greenhaven Press.
Parton, N. (1979). The natural history of child abuse: a study in social problem definition. British Journal of Social Work, 9, 427-51.
Promoting the understanding of cultural differences is crucial, because a large number of child abuse and neglect cases involve allegations against minorities.
As a result, in some areas a psychologist may interview the involved caregivers and children to help the courts decide whether parents have behaved abusively and to determine their children's placement. However, sometimes the psychologists' unfamiliarity with a culture leads to unfair decisions. In some Hispanic cultures, for example, parents may not be socialized to express anger directly. Sometimes a child's action may cause that repressed anger to erupt. In such instances, parents may need training in anger management and discipline, instead of a prison sentence and denied access to children.
Because of this situation, the American Psychology Association offers assessment standards for culturally varied populations:
Learn about the culture of the person being assessing. Consult with others who know the culture because there is not always literature…
Besharov, Douglas J. Recognizing and Reporting Child Abuse: Protecting Children from Abuse and Neglect. Washington, D.C. University of Maryland's Welfare Reform Academy, 2000.
Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA) of 1974. 23 November 2006. http://laws.adoption.com/statutes/child-abuse-prevention-and-treatment-act - capta-of-1974.html.
Dershowitz, Alan. M. Contrary to Popular Opinion. New York: Pharos Books, 1992.
Murray, Bridget. Cultural insensitivity leads to unfair penalties. Monitor 30.9, October
Child Abuse and Sexuality
There has been increasing awareness about stopping sexual child abuse, which has now become an important public health concern (Hammond, 2003; hitaker, Lutzker, & Shelley, 2005). In 2005 more than 83000 cases related to child sexual abuse have been listen in the state-based reports, that have been accumulated by the office of Child Abuse and Neglect (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services [U.S. DHHS], 2007). Majority of these cases related to sexual abuse never get registered or reported. Finkelhor, Ormrod, Turner, and Hamby's (2005) conducted a survey a while back in which the sample constituted of parents along with children. The results of the survey were that, in the year before the survey, out of every 1000 children 82 have been a victim of sexual abuse (hitaker, 2008).
The abused child undergoes various problems socially, behaviorally, psychologically and physically. Depression, PTSD, somatization, and personality disorder…
Whitaker, D.J. et al. (2008). Risk factors for the perpetration of child sexual abuse: A review and meta-analysis. Child Abuse & Neglect 32, 529 -- 548.
Yoshihama, M. And Horrocks, J. (2010). Risk of intimate partner violence: Role of childhood sexual abuse and sexual initiation in women in Japan. Children and Youth Services Review 32: 28 -- 37
Ziersch, A., Gaffney, J., & Tomlinson, D.R. (2000). STI prevention and the male sex industry in London: Evaluating a pilot peer education program. Sexually Transmit ted Infections, 76, 447-453.
Child abuse and all of its aspects, affect not only the child and his immediate family, but society as a whole pays the price by this maltreatment of our youngest and most important resources. The purpose of this essay is to present two differing hypotheses on this interesting and important topic. In examining these two proposals, I'm attempting to reach new understanding and preventive measures to reducing and hopefully eliminating child abuse in the near future.
H1: Child sexual abuse incidence and future substance abuse incidence is positively correlated.
Determining risk factors for substance-abuse is often difficult with the amount of information available to the authorities today. Psychological and physiological variables certainly affect one's tendency to drift towards substance abuse and dependence. When looking at those who do abuse drugs or alcohol the upbringing and treatment of that person as a child may hold certain keys to understanding this dreaded…
Appel, A. & Holden, G (1998). The co-occurrence of spouse and physical child abuse: a review and appraisal. Journal of Family Psychology, 12, 578-579.
Putnam, F. (2003). Ten-year research update review: child sexual abuse. ACAD Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 42-3,268-278.
here are the articles if you want to read them:
Director Martin Teicher of the Developmental iophsychiatry Research Program at McLean said that maltreatment in childhood can effect changes in brain function and structure. A child's brain continues to develop throughout childhood and adolescence. His interactions with the environment create effects, which stabilize in puberty and adulthood. These experiences determine how the child will be wired. The four types of cranial abnormalities, which are permanent, are limbic irritability, arrested development of the left hemisphere, deficient integration between the left and the right hemispheres, and increased vermal activity.
The McLean researchers investigated 253 adults in an outpatient mental health clinic. More than half of them reported a history of physical or sexual abuse in childhood. The researchers found that those who were abused as children scored higher in the Limbic System Checklist. The finding provided evidence that abuse in childhood caused electrical impulses when limbic cells communicate. This results in seizures,…
Business Wire (2000). McLean Researchers document brain damage linked to child abuse and neglect. Business Wire: Gale, Cengage Learning. Retrieved on April 16,
2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_mOEIN/is_2000_Dec_14/ai_68013850/?tag=content;col1
Lapp, K.G.; Bosworth, H.B.; Strauss, J.L.; Stechuchak, K.M., et al. (2005). Lifetime
sexual and physical victimization among male veterans with combat-related Post-
The victim is often put into situations where they are physically deprived of the things they need to make appropriate decisions. For instance they may be deprived of sleep or food so that they can be more easily manipulated. Mental abuse may also involve teasing or name calling. In many cases the perpetrator is very aware of the victim's weaknesses and uses them to humiliate or subjugate the victim.
The sexual abuse of children is increasing throughout the world and has increased drastically in recent years. Sexual abuse can include the molestation and/or rape of a child. In many cases children are sexually abused by someone that they know, rather it be a neighbor, a parent or an acquaintance. Sexual abuse can also have lasting effects on the psyche of an individual. Studies have found that children who experience sexual abuse are more likely to become promiscuous as…
Bolen, Rebecca M. 2003. Child Sexual Abuse: Prevention or Promotion?. Social Work 48, no. 2: 174+.
Cochrane, John, Gaynor Melville, and Ian Marsh. 2004. Criminal Justice: An Introduction to Philosophies, Theories and Practice. London: Routledge. Book online.
Child Abuse. National Institutes of Health. Available at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/childabuse.html
Child Abuse Statistics. Available at http://www.childhelp.org/resources/learning-center/statistics.Internet
Department of human services. (2012).What are the effects of child abuse? etrieved June 1, 2013 from http://www.dhs.vic.gov.au/for-individuals/children,-families-and-young-people/child-protection/about-child-abuse/what-is-child-abuse/who-is-likely-to-be-abused-and-what-are-the-effects
It identifies effects such as emotional, physical and psychological problems as well as trauma. The various forms of abuse lead to emotional problems to the child particularly distrust and low self-esteem when they are adults. The children who have been abused are also depicted to be aggressive or self-destructive, they are also more likely to go into drug abuse and even become young offenders.in the long run, adults who were victims of child abuse end up abusing their own children.
Child help. (2013).Immediate effects of child abuse. etrieved June 1, 2013 from http://www.childhelp.org/pages/immediate-effects-of-child-abuse
There are some immediate effects from child abuse which are serious especially to infants as depicted in the source above. Serious injuries and fatalities occur in children who are just under 12 months.there are various signs which indicate that a…
Child help. (2013).Immediate effects of child abuse. Retrieved June 1, 2013 from http://www.childhelp.org/pages/immediate-effects-of-child-abuse childrens.org. (2013). Effects of Child Abuse. Retrieved June 1, 2013 from http://childrens.org/child/effects-of-child-abuse/
Commonwealth of Australia. (2010). Effects of child abuse and neglect for children and adolescents. Retrieved June 1, 2013 from http://www.aifs.gov.au/nch/pubs/sheets/rs17/rs17.html
Department of human services. (2012).What are the effects of child abuse? Retrieved June 1, 2013 from http://www.dhs.vic.gov.au/for-individuals/children,-families-and-young-people/child-protection/about-child-abuse/what-is-child-abuse/who-is-likely-to-be-abused-and-what-are-the-effects
Family Resource Center. (2012). Effects of Child Abuse. Retrieved June 1, 2013 from http://www.frcmo.org/effects.html
At the same time, they must demonstrate to the court that they will not be able to abuse their children in the future. If a parent can do this, they will be given custody of their children on a trial basis. Those who engage in this kind of behavior in the future will lose all parental rights and they are going to spend the next several years inside a state correctional facility. These elements are important, because they are showing how this approach will not allow child abuse to occur. Once this takes place, is when parents will think twice about harming their kids.
Clearly, more effective programs must be introduced that will reduce the total number of child abuse cases. This is because the status quo is addressing certain aspects of the problem. While ignoring other areas, that must be dealt with as this can lead to an increase…
National Statistics on Child Abuse. (2011). National Children's Alliance. Retrieved from: http://www.nationalchildrensalliance.org/NCANationalStatistics
Fallihie, R. (2010). Glen Beck Blames Obama for Child Abuse Reduction. Salon.com. Retrieved from: http://open.salon.com/blog/rogerf1953/2010/02/02/confused_glenn_beck_blames_obama_for_child_abuse_reduction
Describe how teachers may use assistive technology effectively with students with cerebral palsy or other physical disabilities.
Children with cerebral palsy can be aided with assistive technology that allows them to communicate more effectively, such as manual communication boards. This form of technology allows the student to speak in class and participate, just like his or her peers.
Question 3: Describe some of the possible effects of substance abuse by the mother during pregnancy. How do these effects impact the child's development?
Fetal alcohol syndrome can cause delayed intellectual development, as well as many other physical health problems that affect the child's appearance and social functioning. It has been hypothesized that drug addiction can cause children to be more hyperactive, and have attention-deficit problems. Although this correlation is not certain, it is noteworthy that substance abuse is often linked to premature and low-weight births, which in and of itself can…
The issues of child abuse in the larger society are often unnoticed until it is too late. Unfortunately, public perceptions of the precursors to abuse are limited, and the unfortunate reality of 'out of sight, out of mind' is prevalent in a society which moves as quickly as ours, and in which individuals are completely engaged in their own lives, expressing little ability to watch out for, or concern for the well being of others. The following studies look into the well-being of children, the impact of foster care on the well being of children, and the community's overall involvement in the problem of child abuse.
In order to construct a viable policy regarding what to do about the problem of child abuse, researchers must first accurately perceive the problems which exist in the larger society, and make sure that they have accurately measured the important factors. Since…
Calvert JF and Munsie-Benson M. Public opinion and knowledge about childhood sexual abuse in a rural community. Child Abuse Negl 1999; 23:671-682.
Clewell, B.C., Brooks-Gunn, J., & Benasich, A.A. (1989). Evaluating childrelated outcomes of teenage parenting programs. Family Relations, 38, 201-209.
Cooper, R, and Sutton, K. (1999)
The Effects of Child Abuse on Preschool Children's Play Australian Journal of Early Childhood, Vol. 24.
("About Us," 2010)
The way that this organization can impact a career is: by giving someone experience in working with different organizations and people. This is important regardless of what you are doing to be successful, Network for Good partners with various charities; which means that you can be able to learn how to work with the different organizations and people within them. Over the course of time, this will improve your overall managerial abilities by being able to effectively work in a variety of scenarios. This can lead to long-term career success, by learning how to be an effective leader, who can work well with other people.
Clearly, Network for Good can provide individuals with the chance to be able to make a difference on the issue of child abuse. This is because they partner with of 1.5 million charities and offer numerous ways that anyone can make a…
About Us. (2010). Retrieved February 10, 2010 from Network for Good website:
National Child Abuse Statistics. (2010). Retrieved February 10, 2010 from Child Help website:
child abuse and reporting protocols describes in detail federal and state definitions, as well as the professions legally obliged to report. Definitions of child abuse include child neglect as well as sexual abuse. However, in the state of New York there are separate categories of abuse based on severity, with abuse being at the top of the hierarchy, followed by neglect. Emotional abuse is also covered. A large portion of the lecture is about how to recognize child abuse, and especially on how to report it because there are legal as well as ethical obligations to do so. However, the lecture also discusses various types of abuse, the causes of abuse such as addiction, and the impact of abuse on the children.
Prior to the lecture, I did not know how many professions were legally obliged to report child abuse. I also did not know the exact protocols for reporting,…
Most abuse is committed by parents, but stepparents also commit abuse, and this is another social factor that can lead to child abuse. Many sociologists believe that stepparents have less of a bond with stepchildren than their own children, and they may be led to abuse their stepchildren while they do not abuse their own children (Wilson & Daly, 1987, p. 217-220).
The eligious Theory
The religious theory of social cause cites control as a large cause of child abuse. From a very young age, the child is controlled by both the parents and the religious order. One sociological expert notes, "Believing parents do not merely indoctrinate their children on the virtues of their own religion. They warn their young against embracing other religions, against following their customs and beliefs" (Innaiah, 2003). Thus, children attend church from a very young age, and are controlled by their parents to attend church,…
Gelles, R.J. & Lancaster, J.B. (Eds.). (1987). Child abuse and neglect: Biosocial dimensions. New York: Aldine De Gruyter.
Innaiah, N. (2003, Summer). Child abuse by religions: Children must be rescued from religion and restored to humanity. Free Inquiry, 23, 47+.
Morales, a. (1998, September). Seeking a cure for child abuse. USA Today (Society for the Advancement of Education), 127, 34+.
Newberger, C.M. (1987). Chapter 10 Time, place, and parental awareness: a cognitive-developmental perspective on family adaptation and parental care. In Child Abuse and Neglect Biosocial Dimensions, Gelles, R.J. & Lancaster, J.B. (Eds.) (pp. 233-251). New York: Aldine De Gruyter.
Antecedents and Implications of Child Abuse in the United States
In spite of increased attention to the problem in the United States, child abuse continues to take place across the country. When children are abused and neglected, their lives can be adversely affected in severe ways that can last a lifetime. Therefore, identifying the antecedents and implications of child abuse in the United States represents a timely and valuable enterprise as discussed further below.
Despite corporal punishment being outlawed in a majority of the United States, child abuse remains a major problem across the country (Lambie, 2005). For instance, according to Lambie (2005), "Child abuse and neglect is a pervasive problem" (p. 249). Child abuse is generally defined as involving the infliction of ongoing physical harm or psychological damage to a minor (Lambie, 2005). Not surprisingly, when children are subjected to this type of treatment on a sustained basis, the…
Adwar, C. (2014, May 18). These are the 19 states that still let public schools hit kids. Business Insider. Retrieved from http://www.businessinsider.com/19-states-still-allow-corporal-punishment-2014-3#ixzz3fMyzACDO .
Hmurovich, J. (2009, June). Child abuse and neglect prevention: Is more than a funding stream. Policy & Practice, 67(3), 11-19.
Lambie, G.W. (2005, February). Child abuse and neglect: A practical guide for professional school counselors. Professional School Counseling, 8(3), 249-254.
One group will consist of those with childhood abuse experience while the other group will consist of respondents who do not have childhood abuse experience. This grouping is done to achieve the objective of assessing whether respondents with abusive histories really posses a starkly different view of the family. Both groups shall consist of male and female adults, aged 26-55 years old. For the purpose for this research, those belonging to the abused groups will be those have experienced childhood sexual and/or physical abuse.
In terms of the research ethics, the respondents will be assured of their anonymity through verbal and written means. Before the start of the interview, the author will present to them a letter assuring them that all the information that they will be disclosing will solely be used for academic purposes. They will also be asked to choose a name or alias that will…
Baker, L.L. et al. (2002). Children Exposed to Domestic Violence. Retrieved from ttp://220.127.116.11/search?q=cache:sWf-p3OsUz4J: www.lfcc.on.ca/ece-us.PDF+domestic+violence&hl=tl&ct=clnk&cd=16&gl=ph-on Dec. 11, 2008.
Coid, J. et al. (2001). Relation between childhood sexual and physical abuse and risk of revictimisation in women: a cross-sectional survey. The Lancet, 358, 450-454.
Domestic Violence Resource Center. (2008). Domestic Violence Statistics. Retrieved at http://www.dvrc-or.org/domestic/violence/resources/C61/on Dec. 9, 2008.
Family Health International Website. (n.d.) Qualitative Research Methods: A Data Collector's
The main point of the article, "Moms at ork and Dads at Home: Children's Evaluations of Parental Roles," is that when children are given a chance to express their opinions on traditional vs. non-traditional roles, they speak up. In this case, the children used in the survey (67 second-graders and 54 fifth-graders) saw it as "acceptable for both mothers and fathers to work full-time" (Sinno, et al., 2009). However, children found it not as acceptable for fathers to be stay-at-home parents as it is for mothers to be stay-at-home parents. Clearly, 2nd graders were "more likely to rely on ... stereotype knowledge of appropriate roles" (mom home, dad at work), and when dad was the key child-rearing parent it became a non-traditional family. http://abcnews.go.com/NT/story?id=130760&page=1. (This is an ABC News report on the growing trend of fathers raising children.)
Another non-traditional family is the Foster Care family. According to…
Sinno, S.M., and Killen, M. (2009) Moms at Work and Dads at Home: Children's
Evaluations of Parental Roles. Applied Developmental Science, 13(1), 16-29.
Tyler, K.A., and Melander, L.A. (2010). Foster Care Placement, Poor Parenting, and Negative Outcomes Among Homeless Young Adults. Journal of Child and Family
Studies, volume 19, 787-794.
Childhood Sexual Abuse
Claims that homosexuality can be caused by child sexual abuse (CSA) are controversial. These claims have been made by a number of researchers, and have weak links to data that may support them (Brady, 2008). In short, it is very difficult to determine if there is actually a link between CSA and homosexuality. It is important not only to further study whether there is a true link between CSA and homosexuality that goes beyond coincidence, but to also study what can be done to prevent CSA, regardless of whether it has the potential to lead to homosexuality in later life. One of the ways to do this is through policy changes through agencies that typically work with CSA and related issues, such as the Department of Children and Family Services.
The idea that CSA causes homosexuality is not a new one. Much of the argument…
Brady, S. "The Impact of Sexual Abuse on Sexual Identity Formation in Gay Men." Journal Of
Child Sexual Abuse 17.3-4 (2008)
Hunter, Sally V. "Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse as a Life-Long Process: Implications For
Health Professionals." Australian & New Zealand Journal of Family Therapy 32.2 (2011)
Child Abuse: The Cold, Hard Facts
The United States has the highest recorded number of cases of child abuse of any industrialized nation
million reports of child abuse occur annually, involving 6 million children
children die every day due to abuse-related causes (National child abuse statistics, 2013, Child Help).
Abuse can take many forms: of all recorded cases of child abuse, 78% contained instances of neglect; more than 17% contained reports of physical abuse; 10% contained instances of sexual abuse; 8% reflected psychological abuse; 2% contained instances of medical neglect; and 10% contained other types of abuse (National statistics on child abuse, 2013, National Children's Alliance).
Most forms of child abuse are not stranger-related. "80% of reported child fatalities as a result of abuse and neglect were caused by one or more of the child victim's parents" (National statistics on child abuse, 2013, National Children's Alliance).
As brought to…
Child abuse and maltreatment: Fact sheet. (2013). Centers for Disease Control (CDC). Retrieved:
National child abuse statistics. (2013). Child Help. Retrieved: