Theory Essays Examples

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Theories Sociology Has Been Defined S The

Words: 1350 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14213992

Theories

Sociology has been defined s the scientific study of human interaction and, as such, is accepted as a scientific activity (Leming 1997). Social science aims at discovering and explaining observed events of and in nature by means of a framework that can be tested. The goal of sociology is, therefore, to produce a body of knowledge that will provide not only an understanding of the causal processes influencing human behavior but also enable sociologists to predict social behaviors (Leming). As a science, it pursues observable and provable regularities and explains these regularities by means of a set of observable and provable propositions or statements of relationship (Leming). The very effectiveness or success of sociology lies precisely in the explanatory and predictive power of this body of knowledge derived from research.

The basic components or elements of a theory are a conceptual scheme, a set of propositions that states the relationships between variables, and a context for verification (Leming). The conceptual scheme consists of ideas that possess abstract properties not yet immediately verifiable by direct sensory observation. It also has a system of interrelated statements of relationships between variables, which seam the parts of the concept together. The conceptual scheme…… [Read More]

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REFERENCES

1. Leming, MR. Sociological Theory: a Social Science Approach to the Family. Sociology 371, 1997.  http://www.stolaf.edu/people/leming/soc371res/theory.html 

2. Wallace RA and Wolf, A. Contemporary Sociological Theory: Expanding the Classical Tradition. 5th edition. Upper Saddle River. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1999
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Theories Presented in Understandable Narrative

Words: 792 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93014618

In addition to an automatic evaluation, there needs to also be a "reflective evaluative process" in order to store information from present experiences for use in future experiences (Cunningham, et al., 2007). Basically this theory is that "reflective evaluative processes" are created (based on experience) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), which takes the formulation of evaluation to a higher level, beyond attitude and beyond basic emotional responses. In other words, the PFC house learned "rules" and they play a key role when humans evaluate situations.

Affect and Proto-Affect in Effective Functioning

Andrew Ortony and colleagues posit that when humans process different levels of information four "relatively independent domains" are in play and help functioning processes; those four are: affect (value); motivation (action tendencies); cognition (meaning); and behavior (the actions of the organism) (Ortony, et al., 2005, p. 173). Within those four levels the authors break functioning down to three components, the heart of their theory: a) "reactive level" (responses to "unconditioned stimuli," the simplest forms of conditioning); b) "routine level" (this level interrupts "higher-level processing" when unexpected conditions or emergencies are encountered); and c) "reflective level" (this level effectively monitors any activity at all three levels; it is operating at…… [Read More]

Sources:
Barrett, Feldman L., Ochsner, K.N., and Gross, J.J. (2007). "Automaticity and Emotion." in

J. Bargh (Ed.) Social Psychology and the Unconscious (173-218). New York: Psychology
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Theories Currently Being Used in the Field

Words: 1786 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21347893

theories currently being used in the field of nursing today. While each has their respective positive and negative points, all are useful in certain nursing settings, and can assist nurses in their positions. This paper will discuss two of those theorists, Jean Watson and Jean Piaget. Each theory will be discussed and explained, and examples of how each can be applied in the field of nursing will be discussed. This paper will show that both theories, though very different, can be useful in the field of nursing.

The Theory of Human Caring, created by Jean Watson, was originally developed based on Watson's experiences as both a teacher and in the nursing profession. According to Watson, the theory was created to explain those values of nursing that differ from the values of "curative factors," those of doctors and specialists. The Theory of Human Caring is devised based on the explicit values, practices, and knowledge of human caring that are geared toward the subjective ideas of inner healing, rather than the outer ideas of common theories, and was developed with nurses specifically in mind (Watson, 1979).

The Theory of Human Caring begins by discussing the 10 major carative factors, now generally thought…… [Read More]

Resources:
Erci, B., Sayan, A., Kilic, D., Sahin, O., & Gungormus, Z. (2000). The effectiveness of Watson's caring model on the quality of life and blood pressure of patients with hypertension. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 41 (2), 130-139.

Evans, R. (1973). Jean Piaget: The Man and His Ideas. New York, N.YE.P. Dutton & Co., Inc.