Analyzing Written Assignment ESL Term Paper

Length: 3 pages Sources: 3 Subject: Film Type: Term Paper Paper: #28261708 Related Topics: Behaviorism, Academia, Second Language Acquisition, English Language Learners
Excerpt from Term Paper :

¶ … Second language reading comprehension is known to be extremely complex, multi-componential, dynamic and multi-dimensional due to the fact that it involves numerous interactions among different reader factors. The factors are (L1)-first language literacy, L1 backdrop, background knowledge, language proficiency, knowledge of pragmatics and genre, motivation, metalinguistic knowledge, metacognition, and strategy, as well as contextual factors (e.g., content and text topic, genre and text type, text readability, both verbal and non-verbal (Phakiti, 2006; Salataci & Akyel, 2002).

Teaching English as a foreign or second language (EFL/ESL) can be very demanding and calls for teacher's understanding of not only the teaching methodology and nature of reading, but also learner's nature and the context under which the teaching or reading occurs. ESL is mostly a requirement where English is the official language for communication. EFL is used commonly in situations in which English is not the official language for communication, neither is it used as a medium of instruction. With these two different learning environments, there could be difference in language input, interaction and output (Phakiti, 2006).

History

Theory-Free Methodology

In the words of Taber (n.d), the extraordinary concept of method includes, "the idea of a methodical set of teaching techniques that are based on a certain theory of both language and language learning." Nevertheless, it is still possible to...

...

In the few cases of coup attempts, some grounds were lost, but it retrieved successfully by academia. Due to its antiquity or in spite of it, the grammar-translation technique is still very much alive and used in language classrooms all over Europe, America, and Asia. Teaching it is quite easy; it does not require much more than the ability to remember some sets of vocabulary words; and does not have much significance or rigor in oral communication and auditory comprehension; no one learning or teaching a target language is expected to speak, pronounce, or understand the syntactic language.

The target language is often taught in the native language of the student, so it is quite possible that the students could have studied it for a number of years without any need for them to take part in the most basic conversation (Taber, n.d.).

Apart from having the aforementioned asset of being very easy for both student and teacher, some emphasize it remains the most effective way of introducing literature in the target language. This implies that, in the process of learning how to read in the target language, students have to deal with a number of grammatical structures, several thousands of vocabulary words in context, and learn to give translations across language rules. It never does (Taber, n.d.).

Pre-Behaviorism

The Series Method

Though it was deemed a successful method, its glory diminished after just a few hours, while the good old grammar-translation method came back in full regalia. However, as we shall see, there was no longer a series method, but one day, it will experience a kind of resurrection (Taber, n.d.).

The Direct Method

According to second-language theorists, the Direct Method was the first ever method of language teaching, which was invented as a form of reaction against the ineffectiveness and monotony of grammar-translation classes. It adopted and applied Gouin's discoveries from past generations, aiming to imitating his naturalistic approach. With regards to Gouin's terrible failure in German, Berlitz desired to get students immersed in the target audience. He and Gouin believed in the same things, which was that learning a second language could be made…

Sources Used in Documents:

References

Phakiti, A. (2006). Theoretical and pedagogical issues in ESL/EFL teaching of strategic reading. University of Sydney Papers in TESOL,

Salataci, R. & Akyel, A. (2002). Possible effects of strategy instruction on L1 and L2

reading. Reading in a Foreign Language, 14, 1-17.

Taber, J. (n.d.). A Brief History of ESL Instruction: Theories, Methodologies, and Upheavals.
Retrieved January 20, 2016, from http://seattlecentral.edu/faculty/jgeorg/TESLSCCC/ABriefHistory.htm


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