¶ … Second language reading comprehension is known to be extremely complex, multi-componential, dynamic and multi-dimensional due to the fact that it involves numerous interactions among different reader factors. The factors are (L1)-first language literacy, L1 backdrop, background knowledge, language proficiency, knowledge of pragmatics and genre, motivation, metalinguistic knowledge, metacognition, and strategy, as well as contextual factors (e.g., content and text topic, genre and text type, text readability, both verbal and non-verbal (Phakiti, 2006; Salataci & Akyel, 2002).
Teaching English as a foreign or second language (EFL/ESL) can be very demanding and calls for teacher's understanding of not only the teaching methodology and nature of reading, but also learner's nature and the context under which the teaching or reading occurs. ESL is mostly a requirement where English is the official language for communication. EFL is used commonly in situations in which English is not the official language for communication, neither is it used as a medium of instruction. With these two different learning environments, there could be difference in language input, interaction and output (Phakiti, 2006).
In the words of Taber (n.d), the extraordinary concept of method includes, "the idea of a methodical set of teaching techniques that are based on a certain theory of both language and language learning." Nevertheless, it is still possible to explore a set of teaching techniques and search for a theory (Taber, n.d).
From the early 19th century to the early...
In the few cases of coup attempts, some grounds were lost, but it retrieved successfully by academia. Due to its antiquity or in spite of it, the grammar-translation technique is still very much alive and used in language classrooms all over Europe, America, and Asia. Teaching it is quite easy; it does not require much more than the ability to remember some sets of vocabulary words; and does not have much significance or rigor in oral communication and auditory comprehension; no one learning or teaching a target language is expected to speak, pronounce, or understand the syntactic language.
The target language is often taught in the native language of the student, so it is quite possible that the students could have studied it for a number of years without any need for them to take part in the most basic conversation (Taber, n.d.).
Apart from having the aforementioned asset of being very easy for both student and teacher, some emphasize it remains the most effective way of introducing literature in the target language. This implies that, in the process of learning how to read in the target language, students have to deal with a number of grammatical structures, several thousands of vocabulary words in context, and learn to give translations across language rules. It never does (Taber, n.d.).
The Series Method
Though it was deemed a successful method, its glory diminished after just a few hours, while the good old grammar-translation method came back in full regalia. However, as we shall see, there was no longer a series method, but one day, it will experience a kind of resurrection (Taber, n.d.).
The Direct Method
According to second-language theorists, the Direct Method was the first ever method of language teaching, which was invented as a form of reaction against the ineffectiveness and monotony of grammar-translation classes. It adopted and applied Gouin's discoveries from past generations, aiming to imitating his naturalistic approach. With regards to Gouin's terrible failure in German, Berlitz desired to get students immersed in the target audience. He and Gouin believed in the same things, which was that learning a second language could be made…
Phakiti, A. (2006). Theoretical and pedagogical issues in ESL/EFL teaching of strategic reading. University of Sydney Papers in TESOL,
Salataci, R. & Akyel, A. (2002). Possible effects of strategy instruction on L1 and L2
reading. Reading in a Foreign Language, 14, 1-17.
Taber, J. (n.d.). A Brief History of ESL Instruction: Theories, Methodologies, and Upheavals.
Retrieved January 20, 2016, from http://seattlecentral.edu/faculty/jgeorg/TESLSCCC/ABriefHistory.htm
Brevity is also necessary because reading for content and for linguistic problem solving is the focus" (Kruger). In contrast to the brevity of the intensive program the extensive program "consists of longer selections, that are assigned to be read outside of class, like novels or short stories" (Kruger). Of course a major goal of the program was English language knowledge and reading comprehension, but "Vocabulary building is an intrinsic part
ESL Teachers Lillian Mercado Hernandez Problem Statement Comment by Jose Otaola: Preliminary evidence that provides justification that this problem is meaningful to both the local setting as well as to the education profession and discipline. Provide three to five key citations that highlight the In Puerto Rico, teachers lack preparation to teach English. Teachers of Puerto Rico are not certified as English teachers. She or He is not able to teach
population of ESL has grown in recent years. While the population has grown, they have continually underperformed when it came to ESL classes and exams. ESL teachers must be better prepared and educated to deal with the hurdles ESL students experience as they learn English. They must also learn to adopt new strategies that provide a better learning outcome. This research paper will feature articles and studies that highlight
21-32; Lyster et al., 1999, pg. 457-467). Chaudron (1986, pg. 64-84) explained that the error correction exercise might not have statistical backup on its constrictive impact but nonetheless has proven to have a beneficial impact on the overall communicational skills of the students. Many researchers (Birdsong, 1989 as cited in Wen, 1999, pg. 1-22) agree that the benefits for adult ESL students are extensive as they learn the practical
This was usually the case with the proliferation of British rule at the time; trade was the predecessor to British Colonialism. For administrative purposes, Singapore became a part of Penang and Malacca which were two other settlements in the region. By 1826 these areas were grouped together and became known as the Straits Settlement. Initially the centre of the Straits Settlement was Penang. Penang was governed by Calcutta and
Language acquisition is an aspect that comes about every day yet it is a mystic achievement of childhood. An important element learned is that language is acquired by means of knowledge and cognition of the semantic, syntactic, phonological, pragmatic and morphemic aspects of written as well as oral language. For instance, the children will respond to the languages that they hear in their environment. Children do in fact react to