Asian Women Term Paper

Excerpt from Term Paper :

Asian women. There are three references used for this paper.

Asian women face a number of challenges in the workplace. It is important to look at how individualism-collectivism is a barrier to these women, and determine possible resolutions which can help them overcome this barrier.


Of the "psychological dimensions that differentiate between individuals from different cultures, it is argued that the individualism-collectivism dimension is most relevant to vocational psychology (Leung, 2002)." Compared to the work values of individualism and self-direction which are seen in the United States, Asian communities exhibited work values that are "more collectivistic in orientation, such as altruism, tradition, and conformity. Parental and family expectations have always been salient factors in the career choice process for Asian women (Leung, 2002)."


Employees of Japanese businesses were asked to "rate their experiences of conflicts with their supervisors in terms of goals, tactics, and outcomes. The findings indicated that the employees generally wanted to achieve collectivistic goals more strongly than individualistic goals. Fairness goals, however, thought to be more individualistic, increased confrontational tactics. Achievement of fairness goals significantly determined the employee's satisfaction with the outcomes of conflict, but collectivistic goals did not (Matsumoto, 1999)."

Management Positions

The "women's labor force participation rates in the Asian economics are ranked among the world's highest, however women's presence in the managerial ranks is less impressive, and their near absence from executive positions renders them almost invisible (Adler, 1993)."

It is felt this "underrepresentation and underutilization in management (Adler, 1993)" is due to the diverse "cultural and religious traditions in Asia. All Asian cultures are collective and familial with each expecting women to assume primary responsibility for the home and children (Adler, 1993)." The…

Sources Used in Document:


Adler, Nancy. (1993). Asian Women in Management. International Studies of Management & Organization, Vol.23, No.4. pp. 3-17.

Leung, S. Alvin. (01 March, 2002). Career counseling in Hong Kong: Meeting the social challenges. Career Development Quarterly.

Matsumoto, David. (1999). Culture and self: An empirical assessment of Markus and Kitayama's theory of independent and interdependent self-construals.

Asian Journal of Social Psychology, Chapter 2. pp. 289-310.

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