242). This approach to decision making in public administration was thought to result in improved policies since the approach was well suited to the pluralist environment in which these decisions were being made and provided opportunities for alternative views to be advanced. The incremental model as "took into account the limitations of human cognitive capacities and the costs of acquiring information" (Utter & Lockhart, 2002, p. 242).
Lindblom, C.E. (1959, Spring). The science of 'muddling through.' Public Administration
Review, 19, 79-88 in Stevens at 15.
Stevens, J.B. (1993). The economics of collective choice. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Utter, G.H. & Lockhart, C. (2002). American political scientists: A dictionary. Westport, CT:
Unit II Assessment.
Marble cake federalism
Congressional Budget Office
Pluralism and Calvinism
Federal system of government
"Why can't the citizens of the states just keep their money rather than paying it to the federal government so they can return it in grants and services?"
"A clear national direction without negotiation or conflict with subnational states."
Both b and c
What is the difference between philanthropy and charity? Use examples from private and non-profit sectors.
Although there is some overlap between the usages of these two terms, that are some important distinctions as well, particularly from a legal perspective. According to Shafritz (1998), "The usual inclusive contemporary definition of philanthropy is values, organizations, and practices that entail voluntary action to achieve some vision of the public good or the private production of public goods. Voluntary action includes voluntary giving, voluntary association, and voluntary service" (p. 1654). Emphasizing that philanthropy is an umbrella term that encompasses a number of subjects, Shafritz emphasizes that philanthropic initiatives can be viewed as charity. In this regard, Shafritz notes that philanthropy is "Voluntary giving, voluntary serving, and voluntary association to achieve some vision of the public good;...
1654). By slight contrast, Black's Law Dictionary (1991) notes that "in a legal sense, charity includes every gift for a general public use, to be applied consistent with existing laws for benefits for an indefinite number of persons and designed to benefit them from an educational, religious, moral, physical, or social standpoint" (p. 233). The true distinction between these two terms can be found in Shafritz's observation that, "Relief, of course, is charity, it is meant directly to alleviate the suffering of others. The narrow definition of philanthropy is that the aim of philanthropy is to affect the root causes of suffering, whether they lie in skills, health, distribution of income or political clout" (p. 1655).
Black's law dictionary. (1991). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
Shafritz, J.M. (1998). International encyclopedia of public policy and administration. Boulder,
CO: Westview Press.
Explain the concept of picket fence federalism, using an example from local government in your nearest city as a model.
According to Hanson (1998), "Adherents to picket fence federalism contend that the most important components of the federal system are the various functional bureaucracies, not the national, state, or local governments" (p. 24). From this perspective, the "pickets" of the governmental fence (e.g., the national, state, and local governments) are frequently too fragmented to provide the level of coordination needed to effect meaningful action at the local level (Hanson, 1998). A good example of how this approach has been used in New Brunswick, New Jersey is the implementation of so-called "Special Improvement Districts" (also known as Business Improvement Districts) that are described by the municipality as being "Self-help ventures organized by property owners and local governments to identify and develop defined areas of cities where a more successful and profitable business climate is needed" (Special improvement districts, 2009, p. 1). These districts, which are referred to by the acronym "SID," are managed by private agents who coordinates commercial promotional activities, as well as identifying opportunities for improving the security and maintenance services for existing businesses in their districts (Special improvement districts, 2009). According to the city's official Web site at http://www.newbrunswick.com, "The law permits property owners and businesses in the specified district to organize and assess themselves to pay for the services that…
Calvinism in the South Calvinism Calvinism is an interconnection of beliefs and influences adopted by many denominations, and creeds (Bowen 2014). It was first known as the reformed theology, produced by the Protestant Movement started by Martin Luther in the 16th century. It sought to alter or reform the perspectives of the Roman Catholic Church in explaining the basis for man's salvation through the sovereignty of God (CARM 2014). Since then, it
His most crucial involvement was in the organization of the governing of the church and the social structure of not only the church but the city (of Geneva, Switzerland). He was also a major political strategist and thinker. He modeled the social organization entirely on biblical principles. It was Calvin, for instance who established the same hierarchy we utilize today in Christian churches. He incorporated the church into the Geneva
17th Century Portraits Art that was produced in northern Europe in the 17th century quite different from the art in southern Europe. This difference was based on the fact that in northern Europe -- particularly in the Netherlands, Germany and Switzerland -- Calvinist approaches to Christianity were the rule. In southern Europe, particularly Italy and Spain, the Catholic Church still held sway, and painters tended to be loyal images that reflected
Salvation Debate- Calvinism and Arminianism Calvinism and Arminianism are two different systems of theology that attempt to explain the relationship between God's sovereignty and man's free will. What differentiates these views is the issue of free will and whether people have any as compared to God's will. Some people claim that God's will supersedes human will in all situations if God's will is different. On the other hand, some people
Providence debate or the debate over depravity and atonement, Armenianism vs. Calvinism is one of the "doctrines that divide."[footnoteRef:1] The debate continues among Evangelicals even though the original battle began in the seventeenth century. The crux of the difference between Calvinism and Armenianism is that the latter group believes that God has bestowed free will upon human beings, and as such, free will can be used to opt out
Calvinism and the Reformation John Calvin (originally Jean Cauvin) was born July 10th, 1509, in the merchant city of Noyon, France, in a family of modest ancestry of watermen and artisans. His father, Girard Cauvin, ran the course of a respectable bourgeoisie member who studied law and went all the way from a town clerk to the position of a procurator of the cathedral chapter. As a prediction to his son's further