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In a situation where the domain of the opposite gender is simply different than that of the other this can occur. Using the previous stereotypical example when a woman drones on and on about some aspect of cooking that is important to her but not to the male listener in the room, the quite participant may simply "tune out" and the same is true of a man speaking within his comfort zone about say business or finance, the quiet participant may simply not listen to the information.
Every person I know, including myself has experienced all the above phenomena in association with gendered communications. Challenges are many to clear understanding between the sexes and power, allowing others to feel safe secure and important as well as practicing active listening will clearly help an individual transverse this land mine of potential barriers. The potential personal and social conflicts associated with communications…
Douglass, Frederick. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass. New York: Dover Publications, 1995.
Henley, Nancy M. "Chapter 2 Body Politics Revisited: What Do We Know Today?." Gender, Power, and Communication in Human Relationships. Ed. Pamela J. Kalbfleisch and Michael J. Cody. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1995. 27-56.
Kalbfleisch, Pamela J., and Michael J. Cody, eds. Gender, Power, and Communication in Human Relationships. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1995.
Payne, Kay E. Different but Equal: Communication between the Sexes. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2001.
Men tend to talk more than women do and have habit of talking over them or interrupting them when they are speaking.
In the nonverbal sense, some the differences from men and women are the majority of men do not interpret body language, a nod from a woman means to a man that she agrees with what he is saying and that she is listening to what he is saying. (Gender
Communication Differences and Strategies) A man has neutral body language to show he I listening and a woman would interpret that as to a man being bored by what she is saying. Many men will use less direct eye contact and assume that a woman's direct eye contact is sign of a challenge or a power play. Men will stand or sit at angle or to the side when talking to someone, feeling being face-to-face as being too personal…
Gender Issues: Communication Differences in Interpersonal Relationships
By Cynthia Burggraf Torppa, Ph D
Galt Global Review
Gender Communication and Language
In the "enlightened" age of the 21st century, it appears logical to assume that men and women are finally accepted as equally competent and intelligent, both in the workplace and social settings. It is therefore interestingly shocking that communication studies reveal wide-ranging differences in the way in which men and women communicate. Many of these communication styles date from social systems where women were seen as incompetent and weak, whereas men were the competent, eloquent sector of society. While society consciously accepts that gender differences do not extend to the mental faculties of the average man or women, these assumed differences still operate very much on a subconscious level. This view is explored by examining a variety of communicative settings, including workplace, social and online communication.
According to a report by Vanfossen, women in formal group, meetings tend to display a subordinate disposition in relation to…
Athenstaedt, Ursula. "Gender role self-concept and gender-typed communication behavior in mixed-sex and same-sex dyads." In Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, January, 2004.
Vanfossen, Beth. "Gender Differences in Communication." Institute for Teaching and Research on Women, Towson University, 1996. http://pages.towson.edu/itrow/wmcomm.htm
We, Gladys. "Cross-Gender Communication in Cyberspace." Department of Communication, Simon Fraser University, 1993. http://eserver.org/feminism/cross-gender-comm.txt
This means that in so much as a direct and solution-oriented conversational style is preferred in the business setting, it does not mean that this style is the most efficient. There are "cultures" or other sectors in the business environment that uses female communication style because they are able to appeal more to the people or audience. A woman handling a focus group discussion on a product may be preferred by the discussants rather than a male moderator. Usually, people in a boardroom meeting would want to have a male, rather than female, representative to delegate the company.
These examples show that communication styles between males and females are used in different, specific business contexts. Both are useful in the workplace for different purposes. Though the prevailing communication style is direct and solution- oriented, there are also gradual shifts towards adopting supportive types of communication, because this especially bonds employees…
Communication theory is described as any systematic explanations of the nature of the communication process. It's important for businesses and organizations to understand communication theory because they can't accomplish their objectives and goals without effective communication between workers. Since it focuses on analyzing the processes with which information is transmitted from the sender to the receiver, communication theory also focuses on the various ways with which information is transferred from one medium to another.
Generally, communication is regarded as the magical factor that can guarantee a happy long-term relationship and organization success (Dainton, 2004). It's an important factor within the Navy, particularly in the Casualty Assistance Calls section since this section deals with helping sailors who have suffered a casualty. Therefore, it's important for the Casualty Assistance Calls Officer to possess effective communication skills because his/her main duty is to provide information, resources, and assistance in the event of a…
Brown, J.M. (n.d.). How Can Cultural Differences Affect Business Communication? Retrieved
December 20, 2011, from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/can-cultural-differences-affect-business-communication-5093.html
Dainton. (2004, September 16). Introduction to Communication Theory. Retrieved December
20, 2011, from http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/4983_Dainton_Chapter_1.pdf
The research question examined in this study poses the following question: "How does one person's behavior affect another person's behavior?" Specifically, this study is intended to assess the various mechanisms through which people communicate, both verbally and non-verbally. The study is intended to examine the different methods in which males vs. females communicate, and explore whether a difference in gender correlates with a different approach to communicate. Also examined is whether or not males or females are likely to be influenced by each others communication cues, and whether one gender is more influenced by certain settings/cues than the other.
Non-participant observation was the methodology selected for this study. Specifically, in order to best assess and observe gender relationships, our group decided to split the observations between two social settings: bars where people might "hang out" casually and the student center. Four members of our group went to Pete's…
Source 1: The Arts of Impression Management
Source 2: Studies of the Routine Grounds of Everyday Activities
Digby, Devin. Communication Minutes.
Mehta, Radhi. College Avenue Student Center, Food Court
Gender and Communication: Breaking Gender Barriers in the Workplace
Gender barriers have existed within the workplace ever since women in America came out of the kitchen and went to work during World War II. Like with any new experience of empowerment, when the men came home, the country's women were wholly a changed group. Women had entered the workforce, and they were there to stay, despite the misgivings of much of the country's male population. While the working environment in today's day and age is certainly far different and equally far improved from those initial days undertaken by women in the workplace, the truth remains that gender inequality within the business world is a factor that is still vastly relevant, despite mandated government equality rules. Though men and women enter the same businesses every day, in order to do the same jobs, certain gender barriers continue to exist. Further, in…
Catalyst. 2005. Women take care, men take charge: stereotypic of U.S. business leaders exposed. Web. Retrieved from: http://www.catalyst.org/file/53/women %20take%20care,%20men%20take%20charge%20stereotyping%20of%20u.s.%20business%20leaders%20exposed.pdf [Accessed on 2 March 2012].
Eagly, A. And Johnson, B. 1990. Gender and leadership style: a meta-analysis. Center for Health, Intervention and Prevention (CHIP). Web. Retrieved from: http://digitalcommons.uconn.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1010 [Accessed on 2 March 2012].
Price, K., Schmidt, S., and Stitt, C. 1983. Sec of leader, leader behavior and subordinate satisfaction. Sex Roles, 9.1: pp. 31-42. Web. Retrieved from: http://temple.academia.edu/stuartschmidt/Papers/527541/Sex_of_leader_leader_behavior_and_subordinate_satisfaction [Accessed on 2 March 2012].
Riggio, R. 2010. Do men and women lead differently? Who's better? Cutting Edge
Gender and Islam Books
The war in Iraq has shone attention on the plight of women in the Middle East. For many scholars, the issue of the rights of women as mandated in Islamic texts and the role of Muslim women in the contemporary Islamic world is one of the most pressing issues.
This paper examines two works that shed light in this regard -- Islam, Gender, and Social Change edited by Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad and John L. Esposito and Leila Ahmed's Women and Gender in Islam: Historical Roots of a Modern Debate.
Both books provide a rich background of the history and modern-day context women living under the Islamic religion. The first part of this paper gives a summary of selected readings from Islam, Gender, and Social Change and of Ahmed's work. The second part then gives a critique of the works. In the final section, the paper relates…
At the end of the party he took a card out of his wallet and gave it to me. He said, "Here, I'll give you my phone number. If you'd like to call me up, I'd love to hear from you." called him two days later and we made a date. Turned out he didn't drive so I had to pick him up. Since I had called him and I was going to be the driver, I bought a small bouquet of flowers and brought them to him. It was fun to reverse roles. Philip was the only man I ever met who didn't have a driver's license. He said he didn't want or need to drive. He liked taking buses and having his friends drive him places.
Dinner was a success. He paid for everything in the traditional manner. Philip told me he was a feminist. He had never…
Furman, Frida K. Facing the Mirror: Older Women and Beauty Shop Culture. New York:
Tannen, Deborah. You Just Don't Understand. New York: Ballantine Books, 1990.
Wood, Julia T. Gendered Lives.
). Women, because they have a cooperative approach, may offer advice even when that advice has not been sought. These basic differences can lead to some of the major communications problems between men and women. When women offer unsolicited advice to men, the men may feel as if their competence or ability is being questioned (vom Saal, unk.). On the other hand, when a man offers solutions to a woman, a woman may feel as if he is revealing a lack of empathy (vom Saal, unk.).
However, the emotions and motivations behind communication are only one part of the communication complex. Communication is more than simply what people say; it includes listening and non-verbal communication in addition to verbal communication. Women seem more cued to societal prompts signaling politeness. This means that women are more likely to listen to what another person is saying and are less likely to interrupt.…
Miller, M. And Buchanan, H. (2008). Gender-based communication styles. Retrieved March 8,
2011 from Baby Shop Magazine. Website: http://www.babyshopmagazine.com/fall08/gender-based-communication-styles.htm
vom Saal, W. (unk.). Gender differences in communication styles. Retrieved March 8, 2011
from the State University of New York College at Oneonta
Atlantic, the author outlines several issues using multiple case studies from the media. The issues cover the gamut of gender-related issues in the workplace, particularly focusing on equitable pay, structural inequality, and harassment. Because of the brevity of the piece, it is understandable that it might oversimplify several of the issues. However, generally the article offers insight into how the sociology of gender plays out in the real world.
One of the most interesting features in the article was a description of research showing that even office temperatures are determined by men. "the formula used to calculate standard office thermostat temperatures was biased, and based on the resting metabolic rate of a 40-year-old man who weighs 154 pounds," (Zhou, 2015). As a result, the ambient temperature of the office is designed for this "normative" person, and a normative person in a patriarchal society is a man. This interesting but simple…
Zhou, L. (2015). Year in Review: The Biggest Stories About Gender Inequality at Work. http://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2015/12/gender-equality-workplace-2015/422328/
“One is not born but rather becomes a woman.” This famous statement by the French existential feminist Simone de Beauvoir highlights the fact that gender, as opposed to physical sex, is something into which someone is socialized, not which exists as a universal construct (Butler, 1988, p. 519). The 20th century feminist theorist Judith Butler took De Beauvoir’s thesis one step further to argue that gender is a performance not connected to the physical body at all and both men and women can effectively perform the female role. This notion is not as radical and contemporary as it may seem. As the film Shakespeare in Love highlights, in Elizabethan times, women were considered to be inferior beings, incapable of acting on stage at all. The film is a highly fictionalized version of life on the Elizabethan stage, and its final, climatic scene is that of a young woman named Viola…
However, gender expectations of different nations can impede free and open discussion in intercultural communications, if a particular culture has yet to accept that it is appropriate for women to confidently assume positions of authority.
Although cross-cultural communication presents a challenge, globalization has made understanding the difference between high-context and low-context cultures even more vital than ever before. Implied meanings in different cultures have different levels of signification, based upon relationships. "In relationship-oriented countries like Mexico, India and China, people tend to prioritize projects based on the hierarchy of the person who owns it" in contrast to the United States, where the project itself is viewed more important than the person in charge (Frase 2007).
Much like male-female communication tropes, social expectations rather than actual message or even delivery can affect the message conveyed and impede communication. An analysis of diverse work teams at international firms by Brett et al.…
Bond, J. (2007, December). Training in a diverse environment. Canadian HR
Reporter, 20(21), 19, 26. Retrieved July 21, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global
through ProQuest (Document ID: 1410548371).
Brett, Jeanne, Kristin Behfar, & Mary C. Kern. (2006, November). Managing multicultural teams. Harvard Business Review, 84(11), 84-91. Retrieved July 21, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global through ProQuest (Document ID: 1151916931).
Communication and Perception Processes
Communication models simplify the descriptions of complex communication interactions
Transmission- a linear one-way process in which a sender transmits a message to a receiver
Participants- senders and receivers of messages
Messages- the verbal and non-verbal content being shared
Encoding- turning thoughts into communication
Decoding- turning communication into thoughts
Channels- sensory routes through which messages travel
Barriers / Noise
Environmental noise- physical noise
Semantic noise- noise in encoding process
Interaction- participants alternate positions as senders and receivers of messages
Participants- senders and receivers of messages
Messages- the verbal and non-verbal content being shared
Encoding- turning thoughts into communication
Decoding- turning communication into thoughts
Channels- sensory routes through which messages travel
Feedback- messages sent in response to other messages
Physical context- environmental factors
Psychological context- mental and emotional factors
Transaction- a process in which communicators generate social realities within social, relational, and cultural contexts.
Carey, J. (Unk). "A cultural approach to communication." Communication as culture.
Retrieved April 11, 2014 from Northern Illinois University website: http://www3.niu.edu/acad/gunkel/coms465/carey.html
"Communication and Perception Processes." (Unk.) In, A primer on communication studies, pp.
1-21. Retrieved April 11, 2014 from Lardbucket website: http://2012books.lardbucket.org/books/a-primer-on-communication-studies/s01-02-the-communication-process.html
Discuss one principle you have learned in this class and already put into practice.
Unlike many other classes, it is relatively easy to see the applicability of the principles of this class in everyday life. Communication, as it is often observed, is something that takes place on a daily basis. One cannot escape the dialogue of communication with others and with the world. Even making the decision to be silent, when others are speaking, communicates something, if only sullenness. However, as 'easy' as it may be to communicate or to convey a message, it is not always easy to put into practice the principles learned in a communication class, such as the need not only to put forth one's own desired message, but to receive the communicative messages of other individuals.
One of the most key principles learned in this class is the need to respect other individual's…
3. If you feel threatened by what the other person has to say, take a break and formulate a reasoned response later.
IV. The third sign of miscommunication is not appreciating differences in communication styles.
A. The popular book Men are from Mars, Women are from Venus illustrates some different communication styles.
1. Although the differences are not necessarily related to gender, they are related to healthy relationships in general.
2. Some people prefer long periods of silence, while others like to talk a lot.
3. Some people need frequent positive feedback.
B. especting the other person's unique needs is crucial for healthy relationships.
1. When in doubt, ask the other person what they need from you to be a better communicator.
2. Be patient; it takes time to learn what the other person needs
3. Become more aware of your own communication styles and express what they are.
Duerksen, C. (2009). Communication skills for lifelong relationships. Discovery Health. Retrieved Nov 18, 2009 from http://health.discovery.com/centers/loverelationships/articles/communicate.html
Gray, J. (1992). Men are from Mars, Women are from Venus. New York: HarperCollins.
"Relationships and Communication" (nd). Better Health Channel. Retrieved Nov 19, 2009 from http://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/bhcv2/bhcarticles.nsf/pages/Relationships_and_communication?OpenDocument
Those conversations also invariably include expressions of success or confidence as well. However, they discuss their feelings and those of others relatively rarely. In many cases, even the closest of male friends maintain a relationship that is sustained largely by common interests such as in sports or recreational interests. They may know one another for many years without ever really discussing their feelings or their intimate thoughts about personal matters. Women, tend to do the exact opposite, focussing on discussions about people instead of inanimate objects or impersonal interests. Close female friends typically know everything there is to know about one another and they invariably know one another better and more fully than their respective husbands or boyfriends know them.
As Tanner explains, these tendencies are likely functions of both biology and social learning. From the evolutionary biological perspective, males would have had to worry more about projecting their strength…
Employees become frustrated and develop negative views concerning management. Any animosity that the employee may exhibit could result in workplace violence. If employees are terminated or laid off under such conditions, resentment could lead to violence (Chenier 1998)." stressful work environment can also lead to poor service and customer dissatisfaction (aner 1995). In severe cases, problems communicating in the workplace can lead to the demise of a business or enterprise. Therefore, it is vitally important that workplace communications problems are addressed in a timely and appropriate manner. Over the next few paragraphs, we will discuss how communication problems in the workplace can be resolves.
Resolving Communications Problems in the orkplace
Stoppler (2005) explains that problems communication in the workplace will always exist to some extent. Therefore, managers and employees alike must find ways to resolve these conflicts. The author argues there are ten ways that communication problems in the workplace…
Brownell, J. (1994). Managerial listening and career development in the hospitality industry. Journal of the International Listening Association, 8, 31-49.
Carmichael, K. (1996). Conceptualizing Business Communication. The Journal of Business Communication, 33(3), 327+. Retrieved Chenier E. (1998) the Workplace: A Battleground for Violence. Public Personnel Management. Page Number: 557.
Cooper, L.O. (1997). Listening Competency in the Workplace: A Model for Training. Business Communication Quarterly, 60(4), 75+..
Communication -- Gender and Communication
The parameters of gender have undergone a dramatic expansion through the efforts of Science and enlightened feminists such as Nancy Mairs. Their contributions allow a multitude of genders and new definitions that account for the richness of human sexuality. As a result, femininity can be defined in the broadest and richest terms as a set of psychological traits unconstrained by classically masculine and feminine boundaries.
"Femininity" is best defined as sensitivity and awareness, a firm set of psychological traits that is not reflected in behavior. Actions are not masculine or feminine, but approaches to them are masculine or feminine. The classically oppressive confinement of "normal" gender to male and female is no longer viable, for humanity exists in a far greater array of sexual characteristics than genitals can distinguish or dictate. Anne Fausto-Sterling offers many examples of Science's growing acceptance of broad gender range, reaching…
Fausto-Sterling, A. (2000). The five sexes: Why male and female are not enough. Retrieved on February 19, 2013 from www.uta.edu Web site: http://www.uta.edu/english/timothyr/Fausto-Sterling.pdf
Mairs, N. (1986). Plaintext essays by Nancy Mairs. Tucson, AZ: University of Airzona Press.
... Paents' expectations had a stong and positive diect effect on adolescents' expectations and indiect effects though school-based paental involvement and though students' high school involvement. (Tusty, 2002)
All in all, Afican-Ameican gils appeaed to be positively influenced in almost evey measue of achievement, if those desiable behavios wee einfoced by positive goup inteactions. Such a study pesents clea evidence that the psychology of the goup, and the assumptions made by society, play a lage and significant ole in shaping oppotunities fo Afican-Ameican women. Those who do not have the suppot of thei families, fiends, and educatos, will not eceive the encouagement necessay to make the pope choices in egad to caee. They will not pusue the education that is equied fo advancement to positions with highe eanings potential. Even moe likely, lacking sufficient encouagement, young Afican-Ameican gils will find themselves locked into unfulfilling "caees" that bing little in the…
references for Job Attributes Associated with Work and Family: A Longitudinal Study of Career Outcomes. Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, 53(5-6), 303+.
Phillips, S.D., & Imhoff, a.R. (1997). Women and Career Development: A Decade of Research. 31+.
Trusty, J. (2002). African-Americans' Educational Expectations: Longitudinal Causal Models for Women and Men. Journal of Counseling and Development, 80(3), 332+.
By examining violence and women in both Sin City and the Tekken series, one is able to see how seemingly similar representations of gender and violence actually create wildly different meanings depending on the particular medium. While Sin City and Tekken participate in the visual language of gender, when it comes to the relationship between gender and violence, Sin City focuses on the victimization of women's bodies at the hands of men while Tekken disavows any connection between the violence committed and the gender of those committing it. This analysis reveals an important distinction between violence committed by or against gendered individuals and violence committed because of gender, because as Tekken demonstrates, the former situation actually offers the possibility for a more expansive representation of gender.
Bryce, J.O., & utter, J. (2003). Gender dynamics and the social and spatial organization of computer gaming. Leisure Studies, 22(1), 1-15.
Bryce, J.O., & Rutter, J. (2003). Gender dynamics and the social and spatial organization of computer gaming. Leisure Studies, 22(1), 1-15.
Funk, J.B., Baldacci, H.B., Pasold, T., & Baumgardner, J. (2004). Violence exposure in real-life, video games, television, movies, and the internet: is there desensitization? Journal
of adolescence, 27(1), 23-39.
Namco Bandai (2009). Tekken 6 [videogame]. Tokyo: Katsuhiro Harada.
Any diversion from that norm is considered deviance.
Gender Awareness Week should seek to accomplish several goals. First, the week of seminars and workshops will inspire all of us to think more cogently about gender. What does gender mean to us and to our identity? How has gender identity affected our behaviors, our relationships, our reactions to external events? How has our gender identity affected the way others relate to us? I would encourage all students to become more aware of gender in their daily lives. We need to pay attention to instances in which gender is particularly salient. For example, do males react differently to a woman wearing a skirt and heels than to a woman wearing jeans and Doc Martins?
Second, Gender Awareness Week should stimulate more media literacy. The media promotes and reinforces gender norms. For example, a recent Victoria's Secret lingerie fashion show included brief biographies…
Gender and Smell ecognition
There has been a significant amount of speculation about innate gender differences in thought, cognitive ability, and the relative strength of certain senses. One of area that has received some attention is the ability to smell. Anecdotal evidence suggests that women have a stronger ability to smell than men, as does significant prior research. This research study will examine the relative strength of the sense of smell of a group of men compared to a group of women. Each test group will consist of 20 subjects. The expectation is that the women, as a group, will have a statistically significant better sense of smell than the men. However, at the outset of this study, it must be noted that many factors other than gender are known to influence the sense of smell including overall health and age. This study did not control for those additional factors,…
Dalton, P., Doolittle, N., & Breslin, P. (2002). Gender-specific induction of enhanced sensitivity to odors. Nature Neuroscience, 5, 199-200.
Lehrner, J. (1993). Gender differences in long-term odor recognition memory: verbal vs. sensory influences and the consistency of label use. Chem. Senses, 18(1), 17-26.
Lenochova, P., & Havlicek, J. (2008). Human body odour individuality. Chemical Signals in Vertebrates, 11(3), 189-198. doi: 10.1007/978-0-387-73945-8_18
McGivern, R., Mutter, K., Anderson, J., Wideman, G., Bodnar, M., & Huston, P. (1998).
Communication Competence Between Male and Female College Athletes Survey Questions
How old are you?
Are you male or female?
What is your ethnicity?
F. Native American
The next 8 questions are on a scale from 1 to 7, 1 being strongly disagree, 4 being no opinion, and 7 being strongly agree
Do you think coaches are an important part of a team's success?
Do you think females exaggerate injury symptoms?
Do you think most coaches have your interest in mind?
Do coaches put the needs of the team above the need of the individual?
Are males are expected to be strong and invulnerable in athletics?
Do you think that being honest with your coaches is important for individual and the team welfare?
Can you go to your coach for guidance and help?
Wolf's book, based on a number of scholarly articles she wrote during the last several years, looks at the manner in which women have been portrayed in the Broadway musical, and the references and relevance of those portraits to society's expectations of the time.
Communication Studies. (2012). etrieved from: http://www.communicationstudies.com/
Cary, S. (2003). A Beginner's Guide to the Scientific Method. New York: Wadsworth.
Cresswell, J. (2003). esearch Design. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Ferguson, M. (2010). Choice Feminism and the Fear of Politics. Perspectives on Politics.
8 (1): 247-63.
Gehrke, P. (2009). The Ethics and Politics of Speech: Communications and hetoric in the 20th Century. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press
Hesse-Biber, S., ed. (2011). Handbook of Feminist esearch: Theory and Praxis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications
Leung, K., et.al. (2008). Global Trends in Communication Education and esearch. Boston, MA: Hampton Press.
Levinson, W., et.al. (2010). Developing Physician Communication Skills…
Communication Studies. (2012). Retrieved from: http://www.communicationstudies.com/
Cary, S. (2003). A Beginner's Guide to the Scientific Method. New York: Wadsworth.
Cresswell, J. (2003). Research Design. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Ferguson, M. (2010). Choice Feminism and the Fear of Politics. Perspectives on Politics.
Typical examples include the occupations held by males and females and their recreational interests. Social role theory is particularly important in connection with sexual mores that prescribe very different sexual and courtship roles based on gender.
Connection between concept and article:
The article Gender Is a Relative Term in Politics, Study Finds incorporates the concept of social role theory in the way it describes the extreme rarity of female political candidates facing male candidates in high-level face-to-face debates in connection with political races. In the Unites States, it has been almost a quarter of a century since a male and female candidate for high-level national political office faced each other in a debate.
This is a direct function of the extent to which social expectation influences males and females differently to aspire to political office or achieve other positions of relative social power.
While the article focuses on the issue…
Negotiating isn't something most of us ever learn in a deliberate manner. It seems to be something we're all supposed to acquire somewhere along the journey from childhood to adulthood. Women in particular often feel uncomfortable with the aggressive, male-oriented power tactics generally accepted as the norm in business negotiations. What is really important about the art of negotiating and the gender divide is the economic issue of salary gaps between men and women. Equal pay for equal work is what we want to believe employers will provide. So why are women on the average, still making less than men, and why? If efforts are made to equalize salaries in a given setting, is it only a matter of time before the women's pay once again falls behind?
In the following pages I will identify the dramatic difference between men and women in their propensity to negotiate for…
Antill, John K., Cotton, Sandra, Goodnow, Jacqueline J., Russell Graeme. (1996) The Influence of Parents and Family Context on Children's Involvement in Household Tasks. Journal Title: Sex Roles: A Journal of Research. Volume: 34. Issue: 3-4. p215.
Babcock, Linda; & Laschever, Sara (2003). Women Don't Ask: Negotiation and the Gender Divide. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Blanton, Kimberly (2003, June 13). Study Finds Men Routinely Ask for More Money Than Women in Salary Negotiations. The Boston Globe Knight Ridder/Tribune Business News.
Cardwell, Margaret (2003). Babcock, Linda & Sara Laschever. Women Don't Ask: Negotiation and the Gender Divide. Library Journal, 128, 101.
Gender Perspectives on Globalization
The social impact of globalization: case of Indian nurses migration
The globalization advent can be dated back to the post WWII era leading to the cold war period where countries increasingly chose the nations that they aligned their diplomatic, political and economic allegiances to. This trend was informed by the global economic trends that prevailed after the WWII and the need for economic allies in order for a country and to some extent a region to survive. The World Bank (2014a) advances globalization as the increased interdependence of countries on each other due to the ever increasing finance, trade, human resources and ideologies at the global level. It is characterized by the significant increase in the international trade patterns and the establishment of cross-border investments and these are noted to be the two major characteristics of globalization as sated by Mrak M. (2000:Pp3-6) and these cannot…
Costinot A. Donaldson D., (2012). Ricardo's Theory of Comparative Advantage: Old Idea, New Evidence. Retrieved November 26, 2014 from http://economics.mit.edu/files/7536
Gill R., (2011). Nursing Shortage in India with special reference to International Migration of Nurses. Retrieved November 26, 2014 from http://www.google.co.ke/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=8&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CFUQFjAH&url=http%3A%2F%2Fsocialmedicine.info%2Findex.php%2Fsocialmedicine%2Farticle%2Fdownload%2F517%2F1088&ei=GEF2VJeBA4Ldao7_grgG&usg=AFQjCNF2NHcvOH9zERhetMyAYZN1uKua2A&sig2=VzqxICFENaDFRwkKDJ8YeA&bvm=bv.80642063,d.bGQ
Nagarajan R., (2010). India tops with 56,000 migrant doctors in OECD countries. Retrieved November 26, 2014 from http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/India-tops-with-56000-migrant-doctors-in-OECD-countries/articleshow/7154050.cms
Senior K., (2010). Wanted: 2.4 million nurses, and that's just in India. Retrieved November 26, 2014 from http://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/88/5/10-020510.pdf
Gender and Smell Recognition
WHOSE IS SHARPER?
It is common belief that women have a sharper sense of smell than men. However, there are separate studies suggesting that the sense is as strong in men as in women. Can women really identify smells better than men? Is women's sense of smell stronger in detecting certain types of scents, like cologne and perfume?
Feminine Smelling Ability Superior
Standard tests establish the superiority of women's smelling ability to that of men in terms of odor detection, discrimination and identification (SIRC, 2012). Women convincingly scored higher than men in these tests. A research said that this capability in females was shown in studied female newborns. ut other studies can refute this established finding. A separate study hinted that this feminine capability may be stronger to certain scents but not to others. Female sensitiveness to smell has been demonstrated to be 10,000 stronger to…
Bjorn, G. (2011). Olfaction differences between the sexes. Science and Technology:
The Daily Smell. Retrieved on April 26, 2012 from http://dev.thedailysmell.com/2010/11/12/science-of-smell-olfaction-differences-between-the-sexes
Bhuta, M.F. (2007). Sex and the nose: human pheromonal responses. 100 (6) The
Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine: The Royal Society of Medicine. Retrieved on April 26, 2012 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1885393
Ironically, as we have seen, we live in a capitalistic society. A sometimes unwilling engine of this equity has been revenue generating sports. hat will be absolutely necessary will be the demand of female consumers who will vote with their wallets in favor of equity. However, they will only do so if they are properly educated. The portrayal of women as equal partners of women in society appears to be a permanent feature of American society. Baring some major social change in society, this trend is likely to continue. As noted above, the place for gender integration in sports on the playing field and court will ironically probably take place on the living room couch in front of the television or in front of the computer. Non-athletes will determine for good or ill the status of gender in sports. They have before and this will certainly continue into the foreseeable…
Eastman, Susan Tyler, and Andrew C. Billings. "Biased Voices of Sports: Racial
and Gender Stereotyping in College Basketball Announcing." Howard
Journal of Communications. 12. (2001): 183-208. Print.
"HR and Employment Law News." Hr.blr.com. HR BLR, 3 October 2003. Web. 4
62), a society with "shallow-rooted" norms (p. 177), a "meager and difficult place" as opposed to the expansive way Ruth wishes to grow as a woman. (p. 178) Helen's storm inside, this mother's crisis of identity, has parallels not with Baldwin's women, but with characters such as the Reverend Henry, whose anger at hite society can only be expressed in a eulogy over his beloved son's casket. Extremity in both the apparently placid Henry and Helen brings forth rage and despair, but while at least Henry's male rage is life-affirming, urging his community to go on in the face of the death of a young person, Helen's actions are regressive, infantile, returning to her father, and do not occur as an act of social protest.
The gendered constructions of mourning and identity formulation for Helen's daughters Ruth and Lucille also indicate the limited repertoire the Housekeeping society provides for women…
Baldwin, James. "Blues for Mister Charlie." New York: Vintage, 2001.
Robinson, Marilynn. Housekeeping. New York: Farrar, Strauss, and Giroux, 1981.
Gender and Counseling
The past few years have seen significant advances in the field of counseling. Psychologists and psychiatrists have gained a better understanding of the human psyche. Based on their insights, they have been able to identify new problems and propose more effective methods of treatment.
Many of the problems identified affect the mental health and role of men in society. This is a significant advance, since men's problems have previously been ignored. However, despite such advances, many men are still reluctant to seek help for their mental of psychological problems.
The first part of this paper examines the various gender roles that have been assigned to men in American society. It studies how, through a process of socialization, men are required to acquire several key characteristics that are defined as "masculine," such as aggression, competitiveness and the ability to restrain their emotions.
The next part then examines how…
Allen, Jo Ann and Sylvia Gordon. 1990. "Creating a Framework for Change." Men in Therapy: The Challenge of Change. Richard L. Meth and Robert S. Pasick. New York: The Guilford Press.
Connell, Robert W. 1987. Gender and Power. Cambridge, Polity Press.
Eckert, P. 1989. "The whole woman: Sex and gender differences in variation," Language Variation and Change (Cambridge), Vol. 1, No. 3, pp. 245-267
Grant, J. 1988. "Women as managers: What they can offer to organizations," in Organizational Dynamics (New York), Vol. 16, No. 3, pp. 56-63.
It has kept going ever since" (Cavendish, 2001, p. 66). Morley's wife, Julia (a former beauty pageant winner) joined him in 1970 to help organize the competition to help maintain the contestants' morals and to ensure their modesty was suitably protected ("not invariably with success") (Cavendish, p. 67). Miss World has subsequently attracted television audiences in almost every country in the world and has earned an enormous amount of money for charity (Cavendish, 2001).
During the first few years of the competition, the Miss Great Britain title was a highly prized award, but Cooke suggests that it represented one of the only ways women had at the time to express themselves in a legitimate fashion: "My feeling," she says, is that it was, perversely, a kind of liberation for some women -- a way of making their only assets and their skills (the application of lipstick, the ability to walk…
Beauty Business, the. (2000, August). Business Asia, 8(12), 36.
Cavendish, R. (2001, April). The First Miss World Contest. History Today, 51(4), 64.
Cooke, R. (June 14, 2004). Girls, girls, girls. New Statesman, 133(4692), 38.
David M. Dozier and Martha M. Lauzen. (2002). You Look Mahvelous: An Examination of Gender and Appearance Comments in the 1999-2000 Prime-Time Season. Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, 429.
The message a marketing materials creates to target its audience is vital in terms of its visual and graphical representation to achieve desired results. The following sections are focused to analyze the visual message of Bud Light Lime to understand the target audience of the advertisement. The use of gender images and portraits also carry a significant value in a visual presentation it is also analyzed to highlight its relevance in creating social constructions. The analysis is also focused on the targeted audience, layout, and people. The text and images of the product are also of particular relevance along with the color scheme of the advertisement. The impact on contemporary American society and relevance is also elaborated in the conclusion.
The particular relevance of the target audience is revealed through analysis of the visual aspects, the portraits, and type of message delivered in the advertisement.…
Lester, Paul Martin. Visual communication: Images with messages. Cengage Learning, 2012.
Rosen, Ruth. The world split open: How the modern women's movement changed America. Tantor eBooks, 2013.
3. Where did you find it? (Book, article, URL, etc.)
The information was found at http://www.religiousbook.net/Books/Online_books/Sx/S_5.htm, and it was actually presented in a very sensitive and informative way.
4. Further thoughts:
The understanding of human sexuality has perhaps served to bring a dimension of maturity to my own thinking about human sexuality. Often times these things are taken for granted, but when we begin exploring them at an academic level, we find that we probably were not so well informed as we might have at first believed ourselves to be. It is incredibly interesting to me that the brain and the skin are two of the most significantly involved organs in the sexual act, and yet they have so much to do with the pleasure derived from intimacy that it almost makes one feel kind of silly to have overlooked it, or to have let it go without great thought.…
A Massachusetts woman was raped by her boyfriend's brother, but because she thought she was having sex with her boyfriend, the brother could not be charged with rape because the Hampton County woman had consensual sex, and was not forced to have sex with the man. The details of the case are this: the woman and boyfriend lived in the boyfriend's family home, in the basement. While her boyfriend was at work, the brother entered the basement bedroom that the couple shared, naked, and when the woman called to him by name, the man did not respond, but got into bed with her, undressed her and engaged in sex. When the act was completed, the man got out of bed to leave the room and when he opened the door, the woman was able to see that it was not her boyfriend.
Massachusetts law (see http://www.mass.gov/legis/laws/mgl/265-22.htm ) says that an act of rape is one that is accomplished by force; it does not have a clause for rape by "fraud." Even though the man is alleged to have allowed the woman to believe he was someone he was not, he did not use force to accomplish the sexual act. Therefore, at that time, there was no statute under Massachusetts State law by which to prosecute the defendant, and he was released.
In 2006 when this event occurred, the jury that heard the case ended with a hung jury, no verdict. The defendant maintains that he did not pose as his brother, and that the sexual act was consensual. Massachusetts lawmakers said they planned to update the law, but as of this date, it remains unchanged via internet search.
Additionally, the very peculiar relationship between modern information technologies and the business must somehow be conceptualized if a proper model of knowledge transfer is to be attained. So, while in some cases, technology may serve as an obvious way to optimize the transfer of knowledge and overcome the barriers of routines, these same technologies, in different settings or with different individuals, will create more barriers and less effective routines. The fundamental concern must be attaining an applicable model of knowledge transfer, and perhaps the willingness to employ the idea of replication wherever it can be straightforwardly implemented.
Traditionally, many careers have been subject to gender specific designations. Obviously, numerous broad fields of work like medicine and law have historically been dominated by men, while women have been relegated to secretarial, nursing, or other subordinate positions. In recent decades this trend has come under fire and gender is no-longer widely accepted…
Cohen, M.D. et al. (1996). "Routines and Other Recurring Action Patterns of Organizations." Industrial and Corporate Change, Vol. 5, No. 3.
Woods, Bob. (2001). "Sharing the Intellectual Wealth." Chief Executive, July.
Cohen, M.D. et al. "Routines and Other Recurring Action Patterns of Organizations." Industrial and Corporate Change, Vol. 5, No. 3, 1996. Page 683.
Woods, Bob. "Sharing the Intellectual Wealth." Chief Executive, July 2001. Page 20.
From the experiences, I have had in organizations that work to combine autonomy, mastery and purpose, the level of performance goes up and becomes the new norm of corporate performance. The many studies of motivation underscore that when autonomy, mastery and purpose are combined, long-term learning and motivation occur (amsey, 2010). The communication networks and channels within organizations are accentuated and made more effective when these three attributes become the foundation of long-term learning and growth over time.
In conclusion, the culture, incentive, and leadership within a given organization have a major impact on the effectiveness of communication networks and channels within organizations. When there is a transformational mindset about aggregating content, data and information then transforming it from a system of record to competitive advantage, companies can use their expertise to compete more effectively. In many respects, this ability to compete more effectively based on better use of information…
Andriole, S. (2010). Business Impact of Web 2.0 Technologies. Association for Computing Machinery. Communications of the ACM, 53(12), 67.
Bernoff, J., & Li, C. (2008). Harnessing the Power of the Oh-So-Social Web. MIT Sloan Management Review, 49(3), 36-42.
Billington, C., & Davidson, R.. (2010). Using knowledge brokering to improve business processes. The McKinsey Quarterly,(2), 110.
Jeffrey H. Dyer, & Kentaro Nobeoka. (2000). Creating and managing a high-performance knowledge-sharing network: The Toyota case. Strategic Management Journal: Special Issue: Strategic Networks, 21(3), 345-367.
More specifically, because the potential for miscommunication, misunderstanding, and pejorative or other negative interpretations is so much greater in remote communications especially through email (SHM, 2010), the implications of failure to establish trust remotely are even greater. As Yoong (2009) points out, that is largely a function of the fact that genuineness in expressions of cultural awareness and sensitivity (as opposed to patronizing or otherwise insincere) expressions is absolutely crucial.
Sincerity and genuineness are much more difficult to communicate effectively in impersonal communications media (SHM, 2010; Yoong, 2009). Therefore, appropriate expressions and other manifestations of cultural awareness and sensitivity are most appropriately communicated to virtual working groups via two-way video conferencing instead of other less personal methods of communications, notwithstanding the substantive sufficiency or factual accuracy of those expressions in writing, for example (SHM, 2010;Yoong, 2009).
This project relies primarily on a review of secondary research in the…
Douglas, C. And Zivnuska, S. "Developing trust in leaders: an antecedent of firm performance." SAM Advanced Management Journal. Society for the Advancement of Management. 2008. Retrieved December 30, 2010 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-177101798.html
George, J.M. And Jones G.R. (2008). Understanding and Managing Organizational
Behavior. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Maxwell, J.C. (2007). The 21 Irrefutable Rules of Leadership. Georgia: Maxwell
Communication and Culture
An Analysis of the Dangerous Effects of New Communication Technology on Society
Technology is making communication easier in today's world, but often at the expense of personal contact as many people choose to socialize in front of a computer screen. What dangers are there for a society which depends on computer screens rather than face-to-face contact for its main means of communication? This paper will analyze the effects of today's communication technology (social media, chat rooms, networking) on society and culture.
Michel Metz (1995) argues "that cultures are both possible and prevalent among communities connected only by computer as the preferred mode of communication" (p. 1). But Metz is writing perhaps too soon. The explosion of social media in the 21st century has essentially redefined the way we communicate and form relationships -- which no longer require face-to-face encounters; they can exist globally, with face-to-face simulation offered…
Bugeja, M. 2005, Interpersonal Divide: the search for community in a technological
Age, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Causes of Divorce in Saudi Arabia 2009, Available from http://home-
family.top54u.com/post/Causes-of-Divorce-in-Saudi-Arabia.aspx [Accessed 3 Sept 2011].
There is only so far Google Translate can take a person hoping to achieve social harmony across cultures. Language barriers are enhanced, and exacerbated, by the differences in non-verbal communication across cultures. Whether for business or personal interactions, non-verbal communications characterize a culture's values and social norms. This is why places like Sweden feel completely different from places like Saudi Arabia; and places are dramatically different in terms of how the society is structured, who is in power, and what norms govern behavior. Understanding the complex facets of cross-cultural communication can greatly enhance a travel experience, or a business interaction.
Of the innumerable sociological and anthropological frameworks used to understand and explain cross-cultural differences in communication, Geert Hofstede's cultural dimensions are among the most useful and well used. Power distance, individualism vs. collectivism, masculinity vs. femininity, uncertainty avoidance, long-term vs. short-term orientation, and indulgence vs. restraint are important and…
In a travel article about Stockholm, Alford (2012) relates tales that reveal the unique communication styles of Sweden. These styles can be conceptualized in terms of Hoftstede's cultural dimensions. For example, Swedish society has quite a low power distance; its culture is not hierarchical and is self-defined as being "socialist" in spirit (Alford, 2012, p. 2). Moreover, as Alford (2012) points out, most people in Stockholm also have a cabin in the woods or on an island -- highlighting the relatively flat social structure that has a low distance between haves and have-nots (p. 2). The power distance factor in Sweden can be readily compared to more hierarchical societies, such as India, in which the haves and the have-nots are separated by wide and usually insurmountable chasms. Even the United States has a higher power distance factor than does Sweden, as many Americans are fundamentally opposed to social institutions and structures that generate equality such as free higher education for all citizens, and free healthcare funded by taxpayer dollars. As American onlooker Alford (2012) describes it, " New parents get 480 days of parental leave?! Everyone I talk to seems to have a summer house on an island?!" (p. 2).
As Allwood (1999) points out, Sweden shares many communication traits in common with other Nordic countries like Finland. However, there are a few culture-specific variables that should be taken into account to better understand non-verbal communication patterns. One is specific to social gatherings in which alcohol is involved. Allwood (1999) notes that in Sweden, it is customary for each guest to bring and drink his or her own alcoholic beverages rather than expect the host to provide it. Moreover, the guests will not start drinking until a communal toast has been proposed (Allwood, 1999). This is somewhat similar to the Jamaican custom of not starting to eat at a party until the host makes an invitation to do so; which is ironic given the informal nature of Jamaican communication styles in general ("Jamaica: Language, Culture, Customs, and Etiquette," n.d.). Swedes appreciate informality, but do not appreciate superficiality in terms of conversation topics and styles ("Sweden: Conversation," 2009).
Allwood (1999) also notes that Swedish teaching styles are noticeably different from those in other cultures including other Nordic cultures. There is less authoritarian teaching styles in
17. Johann calls you and says that Billy smells and he needs a shower. If you don't move Billy to another ward, Johann will sign himself out. Explain in details what you would do to resolve this cross cultural situation.
I would tell Johann that we are doing all we can to ensure Billy's hygiene and that if his body odor continued to bother Johann that we can move him to another room or ward in the hospital.
18. There seems to be a language and cultural barrier that's blocking effective communication occurring between these two gentlemen. Considering they are both your clients, what strategies would you put in place to improve this situation?
The best way to remedy the situation would be to introduce the two patients to each other. A handshake, some eye contact, and small personal interactions can go a long way toward eliminating prejudices and stereotypes…
Australian Indigenous HealthInfo.net (2008). Retrieved Feb 29, 2008 at http://www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au/
Department of Education and Training (2005). "Racism No Way." Retrieved Feb 29, 2008 at http://www.racismnoway.com.au/library/cultural/
Indigenous Peoples of Australia: Health." Retrieved Feb 29, 2008 at http://www.ldb.org/oz_h.htm
Communication and Relationships
Initiation of a relationship is a behavior not unlike other human behaviors. If one takes the perspective of a behaviorist, then identifying the stimulus -- response chains is helpful in determining which variables appear to be most important to certain individuals. Several key variables have been found to play an important role in the initiation of human relationships, including proximity, non-verbal behavior, and physical appearance and attractiveness. The influence and the synergy between these variables in the staging of new relations are discussed further in the sections that follow.
On the street where you live. Assuming that attraction indicates an interest in getting to know a person better, one can assume that there has been some contact between the two people. This proximity is a generally regarded to be a precondition of attraction -- although variants do occur, such as adoration of a movie star from afar…
Gender in Fowles and McEwan
[oman] is defined and differentiated with reference to man and not he with reference to her; she is the incidental, the inessential. He is the Subject, he is the Absolute -- she is the Other. -- Simone de Beauvoir.
Simone de Beauvoir's influential analysis of gender difference as somehow implying gender deference -- that the mere fact of defining male in opposition to female somehow implies placing one in an inferior or subaltern position -- becomes especially interesting when examining how fiction by male authors approaches questions of gender. I propose to examine in detail two British novels of the post-war period -- The Collector by John Fowles, published in 1963, and The Comfort of Strangers by Ian McEwan, published in 1981 -- and hope to demonstrate that, in point of fact, the existence of the feminist movement has managed to shift the portrayal of…
Cooper, Pamela. The Fictions of John Fowles: Power, Creativity, Femininity. Canada: University of Ottowa Press, 1991. Print.
Dwelle, Josh. "Ian McEwan." In Schlager, Neil and Lauer, Josh. (Editors). Contemporary Novelists. Seventh Edition. New York: Saint James Press, 2001. Print.
Fowles, John. The Collector. London: Jonathan Cape, 1963. Print.
Gindin, James. "John Fowles." In Schlager, Neil and Lauer, Josh. (Editors). Contemporary Novelists. Seventh Edition. New York: Saint James Press, 2001. Print.
Communication and Super-Saturation of the Modern Sense of Self
"How does the design of information structure the information process? And how, on the other side of the equation, does the nature of audience engagement structure its reception?"
Communication by its very nature is a dialogue. One person or medium speaks. Another individual or an audience of individuals receives the word or the message being conveyed. As with any performance, particularly a live performance, the method of transmission of the message conveyed invariably affects the message itself.
This is demonstrated in its most raw form during an improvised performance piece such as that of a stand-up comic. The comic realizes that he or she is not getting a favorable reception from the audience.
They are yawning, or signaling to the waiter that they would like some new drinks. The comic takes stock of this information, realizing that he or she is…
Butler, Judith. Gender Trouble. New York: Routledge, 1990.
Gergen, Kenneth. The Saturated Self. New York: HarperCollins, 1991.
O'Barr, William. Culture and the Ad. Oxford: Westview Press, 1994.
The role of stereotypes in the selection and acceptance of female leaders.
As Carter & Silva (2010) point out, there are several stereotypes about women's behavior and goals that influences the selection and acceptance of female leaders. Some of the stereotypes about women include the myth that women will leave their positions to start families; the myth that women don't actually aspire to upper management; and the myth that there are regional differences that invalidate the gender bias argument altogether (Carter & Silva, 2010, p. 1). In fact, empirical research debunks each one of these myths and points to a deeper issue related to ongoing misogyny in the corporate world.
One of the prevailing stereotypes held by both men and women is that women are "better at stereotypically feminine 'caretaking skills' such as supporting and rewarding," and that men are better at the "taking charge" skills "such as influencing…
Amble, B. (2005). Gender stereotypes block women's advancement. Management Issues. 20 Oct, 2005. Retrieved online: http://www.management-issues.com/2006/8/24/research/gender-stereotypes-block-womens-advancement.asp
Carter, N.M. & Silva, C. (2011). Delusions of progress. Retrieved online: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:6KLe4O9kjt8J:www.maternity-coaching.co.uk/uploaded/articles/Delusions-of-Progress.pdf+&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESj8377PPjIZHJNykWXmAosw1iHBGLouB-HxKWOLGcMmEB6OTs-ttb2jBosZ8iA146ZWRi18H1f8vmndEmZb0cAQJscorvhFFpG0vuSJI6U67tmnMghCykXqIMNqAdu-1SABk02n&sig=AHIEtbRKrIlENimvwKNBOYrekj9eGob39Q
King, S. (2012). Critical success factors for women leaders. Institute for Management Studies. Retrieved online: http://www.ims-online.com/outline.asp?id=king1
Marcus, L.P. (2010). Developing women leaders: Five factors that matter. Retrieved online: http://marcusventures.com/notebook/developing-women-leaders-five-factors-that-matter
Promotion of Diversity: Is it Really Effective?
The effectiveness of diversity in an organization can be seen in the ability of every employee to recognize the differences that others have from them, and the ability of each to consider such differences as a challenge that can build them with success. Many human resource managements promote diversity because they see the advantages that it can bring to their organization. That is, if they will be able to properly manage the uniqueness of every individual and give attention to their talents, skills, and needs. With the right promotion to diversity, an organization can have the potential of achieving success despite of diverse backgrounds of its employees.
In today's continuous advancements especially in the industry of technology, it can be deducted that diversity at workplace is effective. These days, it is very rare that we see a company composed of people that belong…
Managing Diversity in the Workplace.
A ttp:/ / www.sbaonline.sba.gov/gopher/Business-Development/Success-Series/Vol8/diversty.txt
Chapter 12: Managing Diversity in the Workplace.
2003. UCSF Human Resource Online. http://ucsfhr.ucsf.edu/pubs/managingHR/?x=679
Gender and Organizational Social Change Models
The increasing number of women in managerial positions represents a social change. Women are in these positions, and must earn their way to be accepted by both males and females. There are other changes within organizational styles that may be impacted by the entrance of more female managers into the workplace. For instance, the older authoritarian styles of the early part of the century are slowly being replaced by a more "team" approach (McGuire and Hutchings, 2006). These cultural changes within organizations represent a switch to an organizational culture that is more oriented towards the female managerial style. Male managers may need to soften their approach in order to make the transition to a "team oriented" organization.
The differences in the way in which males and females approach problems is an accepted paradigm in psychology. Historically, women have had difficulty adjusting to the male…
Aaltio, L. And Huang, J. 2007. Women managers' careers in information technology in China: high flyers with emotional costs? Journal of Organizational Change Management. Vol. 20. Issue 2, pp. 227-244.
Akgun, a., Byrne, J., Lynn, G., and Keskin, H. 2007. Organizational unlearning as changes in beliefs and routines in organizations. Journal of Organizational Change Management. Vol. 20. Issue 6, pp. 794-812.
American Psychological Association (APA). 2006. When the Boss is a Woman. March 22, 2006. Psychology Matters. Available at http://www.psychologymatters.org/womanboss.html
Diefenbach, T. 2007. The managerialistic ideology of organisational change management. Journal of Organizational Change Management. Vol. 20. Issue 1., pp. 126-144.
Jamieson explains that the phrase Catch-22, serves as another synonym for double bind. Paula Caplan, a psychologist, notes, "Mothers are caught in a perfect Catch-22. They are supposed to be concerned with emotions and closeness in relationships, but because autonomy has been designated by the white male middle class in North America as the pinnacle of emotional health,"
Mothers in the workplace, however, who do what comes natural to them are sometimes treated as they are immature or even sick.
The gender of the leader does matter to perceivers who filter judgments to the demands of cultural expectations. "Applause from the same sensitive and collaborative leadership is more likely to go to a man than a woman."
In addition, women, particularly leaders frequently experience greater scrutiny for errors, even small ones they make, and are more likely to be criticized than men in leadership positions.
Viewpoints Regarding Genders
Booker, Stacie Kress. 1 May 2006. Perking up: progressive businesses try to offer a range of benefits and policies that help retain employees and make them more productive. Florida Trend. http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-145982865.html .
Case Studies. 2008. Colorado State University. 21 Feb. 2008. http://writing.colostate.edu/index.cfm .
Charting the U.S. Labor Market in 2006. 28 Sept. 2007. Labor Force Statistics from the Current Population Survey. Bureau of Labor Statistics United States Department of Labor. Section 6: Families. 23 Feb. 2009. http://www.bls.gov/LaborForceStatistics fromthe CurrentPopulation Survey>.
Chin, Jean Lau, Bernice E. Lott, Joy K. Rice, and Janis Sanchez-Hucles. 2007. Women and Leadership: Transforming Visions and Diverse Voices Blackwell Publishing. 21 Feb. 2009. http://books.google.com/books?id=ZyhRWzTm_RwC .
These and other linguistic phenomenon can be traced to social status issues, just as the class notes suggest. would further hypothesize that uncertainty in women's speech is directly related to women's lower social status vs. men. Women are socialized to be less domineering than men are and their speech may reflect that. n the class notes, this phenomenon is referred to as cooperative speech vs. aggressive speech.
Likewise, women are socialized to be politer and more deferential than men are, and their communication styles reflect that as well. This line of thought coincides with the thesis offered Deuchar (1988) outlined in the class notes. Women may use standard forms instead of prestige forms "to maintain face in interactions that offer them little power." When women do use prestige forms, they may do so to assert their power…
I am familiar with each of the examples of gender-based language listed in the class notes. In fact, I can think of many more ways in which women and men use language differently from each other. For example, many women use terms like "like," or "y'know" more than men do in casual conversations. Women tend also to converse using more empathy than men, who may speak from personal experience before saying, "Oh, I know exactly how you feel." Moreover, I have noticed that more women than men will make a simple statement sound like a question by raising the tone of the final word of a sentence. The effect conveys insecurity and uncertainty, just as the use of "like" and "y'know" does.
These and other linguistic phenomenon can be traced to social status issues, just as the class notes suggest. I would further hypothesize that uncertainty in women's speech is directly related to women's lower social status vs. men. Women are socialized to be less domineering than men are and their speech may reflect that. In the class notes, this phenomenon is referred to as cooperative speech vs. aggressive speech.
Likewise, women are socialized to be politer and more deferential than men are, and their communication styles reflect that as well. This line of thought coincides with the thesis offered Deuchar (1988) outlined in the class notes. Women may use standard forms instead of prestige forms "to maintain face in interactions that offer them little power." When women do use prestige forms, they may do so to assert their power directly.
But to me, a young woman standing alone on a busy street in a still strange country, the word gaijin changed the tone of this encounter. For the group of teenagers waving and shouting at me, the word gaijin was merely a way of identifying their rare and exciting discovery. For me, a citizen of a country whose history has its share of prejudice and violence, the impersonal identification of me, based solely on my appearance, sounded like the racial and ethnic epithets hurled at Italian immigrants, African-Americans, Asians, Native Americans, Irish immigrants, Jews and millions of other people in the United States.
The word gaijin simply means "foreigner." It is not a derogatory term. But in Italy and the United States, two countries rich with immigrants from all over the world, the act of impersonally identifying a person's racial or ethnic background based solely on the person's appearance, is…
It is thought that the current culture takes power away from women by holding them hostage to an unachievable beauty epitome. The multi-billion dollar beauty business often relies on a strong importance on the worth of attractiveness and looks for women, because this supports a utilization centered culture in which the response for any trouble can be attained by buying goods for improving one's look (Spettigue and Henderson, 2004).
Recently that has been a movement to get away from this traditional line of thinking when it comes to beauty and ideal body image. Two examples of this can be seen in Special K. And Dove commercials. Special K. has in modern years directed at women with its Special K. Challenge. This campaign endorses substituting two daily meals with cereal and limiting snacking in order to shed up to six pounds in two weeks. The acceptance of the plan has led…
"Dove ads with 'real' women get attention." 2005, viewed 21 December 2010,
Harrison, Gail, Juric, Biljana and Cornwell, T. Bettina. 2009. "The Relationship of Advertising
Model Attractiveness and Body Satisfaction to Intention to Purchase an Exercise
Communication and Interaction
Many of the problems that occur in an organization are the direct result of people failing to communicate. Faulty communication causes the most problems. It leads to confusion and can cause a good plan to fail. (Clark, 2000)
In any kind of profession and industry, communication plays a vital role in the smooth operation and management of a work environment. In a hospital environment, it is a very important element to observe proper communication and interaction to allow an effective workflow and service that hospitals must render to its patient.
One example of communication technique is gender communication. This type of communication involves an interaction between males and females. Gender communication is usually demonstrated in work-related interactions of the hospital staffs such as the male doctors and the female nurses. This communication technique was effectively shown by the doctors and nurses during discussion of patient status. Through…
Clark, D. 2000. Leadership - Communication.
Retrieved on 19 October 2004, from NWLINK.COM.
Web site: http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/leader/leadcom.html
Cozzens, M. Persuasive Communication for Leaders.
usiness Culture -- Gender Differences
Identifying Gender Communication Styles: ridging the Gap between the Male-Female Diversity for Increasing Performance in the Workplace Setting
One of the best and most essential assets that a business organization has is its workforce, composed of members/employees that use their knowledge and skills about a specific task in order to perform well for the production of goods and services of the organization. Human resources are crucial elements in improving the efficiency of an organization because they are the first people to experience and determine the organization's strengths and weaknesses. Furthermore, ascertaining the nature of each member's personality is vital to better communication and interaction within the organization, leading to higher productivity and efficiency in his or her work performance.
ecause of the importance of human resources in organizational management, this paper discusses an issue that is of vital importance in the politics of workplace environment…
Ng, C. (1998). Do women and men communicate differently at work? Women in Management Review, Vol. 13, Issue No. 1.
He is concerned that as the social sciences increasingly becomes more quantified, they loffer less understanding into the concepts behind symbols. This is especially of concern, since symbols have played such an important role throughout history. Duncan gives examples of symbol misunderstandings such as: confusion of the symbolic and subjective, failure to study symbolic forms, and sociologists' inability to use non-mechanistic models. Even worse, there is no agreement between scholars on how to define the concept of symbol nor explain the ambiguity of symbols. Is this lack of definitive agreement the reason why people perceive reality differently? Does this lead to misunderstandings and a failure to communicate?
Berger and Luckmann. Social construction.
QUESTION: Berger and Luckman state that society is a human product. Can it also be the product of lower animals? Recently, it was shown that chimpanzees actually are capable of culture or the passing of knowledge from one…
Sociolinguistics - How gender influences the way people speak?
Definition of keywords
Sociolinguistics: This is a study of language in respect of social, class, regional, gender and occupational factors.
Gender: It is the condition of being a female or a male and is mostly used in relation to cultural and social differences.
Gender Equality: A condition in which the opportunities and rights are not affected by the change of gender.
Speak: To say in order to express or convey feelings or conversation (oxforddictionaries.com)
Within the study of discourse, comparative analysis of the way women and men use language has been a topic of interest for quite some time. However, to date no coherent framework for gender differences in language and its use has been established empirically, despite relatively extensive theorizing. One reason for this lack of framework lies in the absence of a consensus in how language, whether written or…
Bridges of Madison County.(2010). Daily Motion.com. (Video) Retrieved from: http://www.dailymotion.com/video/xehubk_the-bridges-of-madison-county-1995_music
Cameron, D., 2007. The Guardian. [Online] Available at: http://www.theguardian.com/world/2007/oct/01/gender.books [Accessed 29 November 2014].
Carli, L.L. (1999). Gender, interpersonal power, and social influence. Journal of Social Issues, 55, 81-99.
Freilino, J.P., Caswell, A. & Laasko, E., 2012. The Gendering of Language: A Comparison of Gender Equality in Countries with Gendered, Natural Gender, and Genderless Languages. Springer, pp. 268-281
individual's gender is an important factor that influences their career, success, and even their subjective evaluation of their career (e.g., Orser & Leck, 2010; Schneidhofer, Schiffinger, & Mayrhofer, 2010). A number of different models have been proposed to explain how a person's gender influences one's vocational aspirations, career choice, and perceived success (see Schoon & Eccles, 2014). These influences affect both objective and subjective measures of career success/attainment.
For example, Orser and Leck (2010) examined how gender moderates objective career factors as well as subjective career factors. Data was collected from a large sample of male and female managers, executives, and CEOs (N = 521). Two objective dependent measures of success were collected: 1) total compensation (annual salary, bonuses, and other financial remuneration) and 2) ascendancy (defined by the number of reporting levels below the participant). One subjective dependent measure was also collected (personal opinion regarding how successful the participant…
Herrbach, O., & Mignonac, K. (2012). Perceived gender discrimination and women's subjective career success: The moderating role of career anchors. Relations Industrielles/Industrial Relations, 67(1), 25-50.
Orser, B., & Leck, J. (2010). Gender influences on career success outcomes.Gender in Management: An International Journal, 25(5), 386-407.
Schneidhofer, T. M., Schiffinger, M., & Mayrhofer, W. (2010). Mind the (gender) gap. Gender, gender role types, and their effects on objective career success over time. Management Revue, 437-457.
Schneidhofer, T. M., Schiffinger, M., & Mayrhofer, W. (2011). Still a man's world? The influence of gender and gender role type on income in two business school graduate cohorts over time. Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, 31(1), 65-82.
.....social injustice and inequality. First, literature related to the fundamentals of discrimination and descriptions of gender discrimination are discussed in the literature. Following a detailed discussion of what the literature says about gender discrimination, the literature review shifts toward the quantifiable effects of gender discrimination in the workplace. Effects are examined both in terms of measurable effects on organizations and individuals.
Fundamentals of Discrimination
Discrimination is unfortunately pervasive in the workplace. Described as an "inaccurate perception of differences," discrimination can be based on independent variables like race, gender, language, and other demographics (Cleveland, Vescio & Barnes-Farrell, p. 149). The differences perceived are "inaccurate," and also have a direct impact on status, access to power, and access to avenues of promotion or pay increases. Most literature frames discrimination as being "subtle and covert," well concealed from the realms of legal scrutiny, and often difficult to define precisely (Marchiondo, Ran & Cortina,…
What are the main communication channels you will apply in your business? Justify
Communication channels are the ways through which individuals within an organization communicate. The communication channel or medium employed to convey a message influences how correctly the message will be received. One of the key communication channels that will be used in the business will be face-to-face communication. This is one of the richest communication channels and will be employed within the organization as it has staff of less than 30 people (Williams, 2016). In addition, this communication channel will facilitate interaction between the speaker and recipients and in elucidating any vagueness. Moreover, as a verbal form of communication, face-to-face communication channel is fitting with respect to obtaining immediate feedback and when there is urgency to communicate (Bauer and Erdogan, 2016). A second communication channel that will be used in the organization is mobile communication. This communication channel…
Meiners, E.B., & Miller, V.D. (2004). The Effect of Formality and elational Tone on Supervisor/subordinate Negotiation Episodes. Western Journal of Communication, 68(3), 302+. etrieved December 17, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5007598557
amundo, B.A. (1994). The Bargaining Manager: Enhancing Organizational esults through Effective Negotiation. Westport, CT: Quorum Books. etrieved December 17, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=27436525
emlinger, K. (1997). Keeping it Straight: The Negotiation of Meanings in the Constitution of Gender and Sexuality. Women and Language, 20(1), 47+. etrieved December 17, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000459002
oughgarden, J. (2004). Evolution's ainbow: Diversity, Gender, and Sexuality in Nature and People. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. etrieved December 17, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=105365847
Solnick, S. (2004). Women Don't Ask: Negotiation and the Gender Divide. Southern Economic Journal, 71(2), 462+. etrieved December 17, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5007664068
Babcock, L. And Laschever, S. (2003). Women Don't Ask: Negotiation and the…
According to online polls, whether and how women should serve in combat is one of the top social issues of 2017 (“The Most Popular Social Issues of 2017”). One of the reasons why this social issue is currently trending is that as of January 1, 2016, the military began phasing in a new policy that opens ground combat positions for women. Over 200,000 new combat positions have been open since January 2016, but “relatively few women have been trained or deployed for these jobs yet,” revealing important structural, human resources, and leadership impediments to gender equality in the military (Patterson 1).
Historically, women have not served in the military other than in medical and support roles (Barry). Women have, however, served in combat roles globally within the past several generations. In fact, the list of countries in which women serve in official military combat roles now is astonishingly long…