Insomuch, Angela felt that she was being penalized because she worked from home. Although Ralph tried to explain that this was not the case, he was unsuccessful in conveying the real issue of missing a deadline. Consequently, the focus shifted to more of a personal nature because Angela felt unappreciated so they decided to reconvene to another meeting two weeks later.
Unfortunately, the meeting started with some hostility from Angela. She was very cold and nonresponsive to Ralph's questions regarding her well-being. Because Angela did not feel positive about the last exchange, she missed another meeting, plus she failed to submit a report. Her actions are labeled as passive aggressive because her lack of apathy has now transferred into a performance issue. With her constant interruptions and frustrations, Angela refuses to communicate and wants to resign. Clearly, conflict is an issue in which resolution is needed in the form of an agreeable negotiation, whereby both parties are satisfied. Consequently, Ralph offered a trial of 2 weeks in which daily communication from home would occur. If for some reason this proves to be unsuccessful, both agreed for trial two weeks in the office. Hence, should the four weeks proved unsuccessful and communicating effectively, both with would go their separate ways.
Two Types of Conflict
Relationship con-icts are disagreements and incompatibilities among group members. Moreover, task con-icts are disagreements among group members, concerning ideas and opinions about the task being performed. The majority of the research indicates that task con-icts, as well as relationship con-icts, hinder group performance and member satisfaction ideas and opinions about the task being performed regarding personal issues that are not task-related (Jehn et al., 2008). Finally, process con-icts are disagreements about logistical and delegation issues such as how task accomplishment should proceed in the work unit, who is responsible for what, and how things should be delegated. Pilar and Miguel are experiencing relationship and task conflicts, whereas Angela and Ralph are experiencing relationship and process conflicts.
Conflict Management Approaches
Various strategies or approaches exist for conflict resolution (Mind Tools, 2012): Collaborating: win/win; Compromising: win some/lose some; Accommodating: lose/win; Competing: win/lose; and Avoiding: no winners/no losers. Initially, both Pilar and Ralph did not handle the conflict very well. Pilar seem to compete with Miguel, which only further alienate him. Ralph tried to compromise with Angela, which still did not produce the desired results. At the end, both Pilar and Ralph used a collaborating approach for conflict resolution.
Two Types of Negotiations
Typically, a distributive negotiation involves people who have never had a previous interactive relationship, nor are they likely to do so again in the near future. However, integrative negotiation means there is an ongoing relationship, whereby several parts of an issue are joined together to create a whole. Conceptually, this implies some cooperation, or a joining of forces to achieve something together. Usually involves a higher degree of trust and a forming of a relationship. Both parties want to walk away feeling they have achieved something which has value by getting what each wants. Ideally, it is a twofold process. Both videos demonstrated integrative negotiations.
Individuals make the organizations, and hence the effective use of communication by the employees eventually leads to organizational success by active listening, managing conflict, and negotiating amicable solutions. Unfortunately, conflict is a common part of workplace relationships. When people work together for more than 40 hours per week, there is bound to be conflict that arises between different parties. It is important to have a conflict resolution strategy in place to deal with these situations when they arise. Moreover, conflict in the workplace can have a much wider and deeper effect than just the people involved in the actual conflict. Ultimately, it can affect the profitability and sustainability of the business if not managed properly.
Communication for Organizations. (2010). Communication process: The basics. Retrieved from http://communicationprocess.net/
Jehn, K.A., Greer, L., Levine, S., & Szulanski, G. (2008). The Effects of conflict types, dimensions, and emergent states on group outcomes. Group Decision & Negotiation, 17(6), 465-495. doi:10.1007/s10726-008-9107-0
Mind Tools. (2012). Active listening: Hear what people are really saying. Retrieved from http://www.mindtools.com/CommSkll/ActiveListening.htm
Mind Tools. (2012). Conflict resolution: Resolving conflict rationally and effectively. Retrieved from http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newLDR_81.htm
Schermerhorn, J.R. (2011). Management and organization behavior. (1st ed.). Danvers, MA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.