Pathophysiology of Gastric Acid Stimulation and Production Diagnosis is made based on increased acid secretion. Acid suppression, an increase or decrease of transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation, anticholinergic drugs and new and medical and surgical therapies are treatment options (Anand; Huether & McCance; & Dach, 2015).
The human body produces gastric acid in the stomach, primarily to digest proteins (Anand, 2015; Huether & McCance, 2012). It is composed o hydrochloric acid and sodium chloride. It digests proteins through the action of digestive enzymes and allowing digestive enzymes break down the long chains of amino acids from digested proteins. The production of gastric acid us regulated by the autonomous nervous system and a number of hormones, and by positive regulators and negative feedback processes (Anand, Huether & McCance). But these structures and processes change when diseased conditions, like gastroesophageal relux disease or GERD, peptic ulcer disease and gastritis, develop.
GERD includes all the offshoots and by-products of acid reflux and other stomach irritants pushing up into the esophagus (Anand, 2015; Huether & McCance, 2012). The reflux is primarily caused by the failure of the anti-reflux barriers to perform their function. It becomes more severe and progresses when it occurs after a meal when in an upright, supine or both supine and upright positions (Anand, Huether & McCance).
The development of GERD has been associated with the abnormality of a number of factors, which disturb the normal balance of the system (Anand, 2015; Huether & McCance, 2012). One of these is genetics. Much evidence drawn from epidemiologic and family studies corroborates the inherited tendency to develop GERD. Findings of some of these studies have shown that GERD in both ...
In PUD, epigastric pain is the most common symptom, which is experienced after meals (Anand, 2015; Huether & McCance, 2012). Functional changes may be in the form of bleeding, anemia, quick satisfaction of a meal, unexplained weight loss, active dysphagia or odynophagia, persistent vomiting and a family history of gastrointestinal cancer. Those with perforated ulcers report on a sudden attack of severe and sharp abdominal pain (Anand, Huether & McCance). Diagnosing uncomplicated PUD includes radiographic…
Diagnosis is made based on increased acid secretion. Acid suppression, an increase or decrease of transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation, anticholinergic drugs and new and medical and surgical therapies are treatment options (Anand; Huether & McCance; & Dach, 2015).
The digestive fluids that are secreted by the stomach glands aimed at breaking down solid food and to kill bacteria in the stomach are referred to as gastric juices. Gastric acid is produced by the gastric parietal cell located on the walls of the stomach. The region where the gastric juices are secreted into the lumen is the most acidic environment in the human body and is known as the
Introduction Motility represents the stomach muscle’s contractions that allow the mix and push of contents within the gastrointestinal tract (GI). Motility is a term generally used for reference to any of the various gastro disorders where there is a loss in ability to control muscular activities resulting from endogenous or exogenous triggers (Ghoshal, 2016). Such disorders may be considered primary or secondary. These disorders may present in different ways. From constipation,
The Normal Pathophysiology of Gastric Acid Stimulation and Production In the words of Phan, Benhammou, and Pisegna (2015), “gastric acid secretion by parietal cells occurs in the fundus of the stomach, and is intricately regulated by various neuronal (vagal), paracrine (histamine, somatostatin) and hormonal factors” (387). As the authors further point out, there are two key phases in gastric acid secretion. These are the cephalic phase and the gastric phases. While