Comparative Pathophysiologies Of GERD, Peptic Ulcer Disease And Gastritis Essay

Length: 2 pages Sources: 2 Subject: Disease Type: Essay Paper: #40139536 Related Topics: Ulcer, Anemia, Genetic Disease, Diseases
Excerpt from Essay :

Pathophysiology of Gastric Acid Stimulation and Production

The human body produces gastric acid in the stomach, primarily to digest proteins (Anand, 2015; Huether & McCance, 2012). It is composed o hydrochloric acid and sodium chloride. It digests proteins through the action of digestive enzymes and allowing digestive enzymes break down the long chains of amino acids from digested proteins. The production of gastric acid us regulated by the autonomous nervous system and a number of hormones, and by positive regulators and negative feedback processes (Anand, Huether & McCance). But these structures and processes change when diseased conditions, like gastroesophageal relux disease or GERD, peptic ulcer disease and gastritis, develop.


GERD includes all the offshoots and by-products of acid reflux and other stomach irritants pushing up into the esophagus (Anand, 2015; Huether & McCance, 2012). The reflux is primarily caused by the failure of the anti-reflux barriers to perform their function. It becomes more severe and progresses when it occurs after a meal when in an upright, supine or both supine and upright positions (Anand, Huether & McCance).

The development of GERD has been associated with the abnormality of a number of factors, which disturb the normal balance of the system (Anand, 2015; Huether & McCance, 2012). One of these is genetics. Much evidence drawn from epidemiologic and family studies corroborates the inherited tendency to develop GERD. Findings of some of these studies have shown that GERD in both


Diagnosis is made based on increased acid secretion. Acid suppression, an increase or decrease of transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation, anticholinergic drugs and new and medical and surgical therapies are treatment options (Anand; Huether & McCance; & Dach, 2015).

In PUD, epigastric pain is the most common symptom, which is experienced after meals (Anand, 2015; Huether & McCance, 2012). Functional changes may be in the form of bleeding, anemia, quick satisfaction of a meal, unexplained weight loss, active dysphagia or odynophagia, persistent vomiting and a family history of gastrointestinal cancer. Those with perforated ulcers report on a sudden attack of severe and sharp abdominal pain (Anand, Huether & McCance). Diagnosing uncomplicated PUD includes radiographic…

Sources Used in Documents:


Anand, B.S. (2015). Peptic Ulcer Disease. Retrieved on July 22, 2015 from

Dach, J. (2015). Bioidentical hormones. Chapter 36 Heartburn, GE Reflux (GERD) ad Acid

Blocker Drugs. Retrieved on July 25, 2015 from

Huether, S.E. & McCance, K. I. (2012). Understanding Pathophysiology. Laureate custom edition.. Philadelphia, PA: MosbyHiuHuntrHune

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