Special Education: Discussion Questions
Discussion Questions: Special Education
the IEP is a joint learning and productive process. How can theories of learning and cognitive development be used to improve the development and implementation of EIPs within the special education community?
Individual Education Programs (IEPs) are among the core provisions for maximizing learning outcomes for students with disabilities under the IDEA. An IEP basically is a document spelling out an individual child's learning needs, the strategies that the instructor intends to use to address those needs, and details on how the child's progress will be measured. It is an individualized document, and is unique to every child with special needs. How well a child performs will depend, to a large extent, on the effectiveness of the IEP that is used to govern their learning.
Theories of cognitive learning and development provide a crucial basis for developing quality and effective IEPs. We will use two theories to illustrate why this is so. The first is Vygotsky's theory of learning and cognitive development -- this theory suggests that learners do not obtain information solely through the individual effort of their instructors; rather, the learning process is influenced by the social and cultural factors in one's life, and these must be educated on how social and cultural factors in the child's environment contribute to the learning process, and how they themselves contribute to these factors. Participants need to come together and understand the factors that contribute positively to the learning process, and those that do not; and together, they need to develop a framework that they all, in their individual capacities, could play to increase the positive factors and lessen the effect of the negative ones so that the learning process flows smoothly. This way, the developed IEP would have be better placed to deliver what is best, in both the school and the home environment, for the child with special needs.
The second theory is Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences. This theory suggests that contrary to popular belief, intelligence is not only represented by one's linguistic and mathematical intelligence; rather, there are a total of nine intelligences, and an individual could have any of the nine (Comer…
Comer, R. & Gould, E. (2010). Psychology around Us. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Shaffer, D. & Kip, K. (2013). Developmental Psychology: Childhood and Adolescence (9th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
Tod, J., Castle, F. & Blamires, M. (2013). Individual Education Plans Implementing Effective Practice. New York, NY: Routledge.
Then students use AlphaSmart software to paste the picture and explain in a paragraph why, how and where in the plot they feel that picture relates to the story. This tests three things: (a) student concentration; (b) student level of understanding of the general plot; and - student imagination. This is an important implementation because it opens the students' horizons and allows them to see the general links and
Thus, efforts aimed at helping teachers to avoid harmful stereotyping of students often begin with activities designed to raise teachers' awareness of their unconscious biases." (1989) Cotton goes on the relate that there are specific ways in which differential expectations are communicated to students according to the work of: "Brookover, et al. (1982); Brophy (1983); Brophy and Evertson (1976); Brophy and Good (1970); Cooper and Good (1983); Cooper and
.." (2004, p.3) the hands-on experience is also related as being important in the science class in the work entitled: "The National Curriculum" which states that science through inquiry: "...stimulates and excites pupils' curiosity about phenomena and events in the world around them" (the National Curriculum, 2006) and that science also "satisfies this curiosity with knowledge." (the National Curriculum, 2006) Scientific inquiry teaches students investigate skills in the areas of:
It would not only be time consuming and expensive for each classroom teacher to develop an effective basic reading skills curriculum but such a curriculum is also fraught with a high degree of error. There is compelling evidence that supports the use of scripted programs rather than teacher-developed approaches to teach complex skills (Benner, 2005). Second, apply positive behavioral supports to manage the behaviors of students with behavioral difficulties during
In their study, "Thinking of Inclusion for All Special Needs Students: Better Think Again," Rasch and his colleagues (1994) report that, "The political argument in favor of inclusion is based on the assumption that the civil rights of students, as outlined in the 1954 decision handed down in Brown v. Board of Education, which struck down the concept of 'separate but equal,' can also be construed as applying to special
More importantly, our appreciative and participatory stance with our co-researchers has allowed us to witness and learn about the cutting edge of leadership work in such a way that is and feels qualitatively different from other research traditions we have used in the past, because it is built on valuing. Even though it is challenging at times (Ospina et al. 2002), our inquiry space is enhanced by our collaboration