At the same time that movement activists were pushing for the enactment of new legal measures, they were also working to develop a grass-roots community-based approach to providing direct services to victims of domestic violence. In 1979, the first domestic violence shelter in the United States was opened in an apartment in St. Paul, Minnesota, staffed entirely by volunteers. Today more than 2,000 shelters and crisis centers dot the North American landscape. Some are funded through private donations and staffed by volunteers but most are sustained by a combination of public and private monies and are run by a mix of professional and nonprofessional, paid and unpaid staffs. Thus we see that contemporary efforts to address domestic violence are characterized by a pattern of service provision and problem definition that from the outset has involved a reliance on state and community measures.
The dual focus on the development of both state-based and community-based responses to domestic violence has grown stronger as movement activists have become increasingly aware of the limits of legal interventions and of the need to work harder at changing cultural attitudes about the acceptability of this type of violence. Although the criminalization of domestic violence and legislation permitting the civil issuance of orders of protection of victims have been of undeniable importance in transforming the act from a private into a public problem (at both the symbolic and material levels), it nevertheless is still the case that many victims are simply reluctant to turn to the state for help. (Kelly)
This journal article discusses an initiative that was done to help victims of domestic violence. This article does not single out men or women; it solely gives information about the subject matter and discusses when it all happened. This article is significant to society today, because without knowing where something has started there is no way to plot a course of action for the future.
The final article (Salazar, Baker, Price, and Carlin) discussed that some research has shown a decline in the number of women victimized by an intimate partner; women continue to be the victims at an alarming rate. Incidence estimates reveal that women experience nearly 1 million victimizations per year at the hands of their spouse or an intimate partner, and one in every three women in this country will experience intimate violence in their lifetime. Intimate partner violence is more likely to occur than street violence or stranger violence, and women are more likely to be assaulted or killed by an intimate partner than any other type of assailant. Research has indicated that 52% of all female homicide victims were murdered by current or former husbands or boyfriends and that 72% of all victims killed by intimates were women. There have been social and legal changes in the handling of domestic violence, but these data underscore the fact that more remains to be done.
In the past 30 years battered women's shelters and batterer treatment programs have proliferated, whereas law enforcement and judicial changes such as pro-arrest and no-drop prosecutorial policies have been implemented. Public opinion regarding domestic violence has shifted. Previously, domestic violence was viewed as a "private, family matter" where the state had no obligation to intervene, and it was generally believed that women somehow provoked the abuse used against them. Today, men's violence against women is not generally considered a private matter. Explanations that attempt to blame women for their own victimization are not as pervasive (Salazar, Baker, Price, and Carlin).
Something is consistent, domestic violence is a serious issue, one that should not be taken lightly. I appreciate all the articles for the fact that they are attempting to give further insight into a subject matter that a large population of people still feel uncomfortable discussing. There is still a lot of growth needed in order to truly under stand why it happens and what can be done to stop it. It is also important to realize that not only women are affected but also men. This is necessary so that we can appreciate the needs of all people affected by domestic violence. Then we can start improving techniques fro therapy and interventions to decrease the occurrence of domestic violence ever happening.
Ellsberg, Mary, et al. "Researching Domestic Violence against Women: Methodological and Ethical Considerations." Studies in Family Planning 32.1 (2001): 1. Questia. 7 Nov. 2005 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001004940.
Feather, N.T. "Domestic Violence, Gender and Perceptions of Justice." Sex Roles: A Journal of Research 35.7-8 (1996): 507+. Questia. 7 Nov. 2005 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000451409.
Kelly, Kristin A. "Working Together to Stop Domestic Violence: State-Community Partnerships and the Changing Meaning of Public and Private." Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare 31.1 (2004): 27+. Questia. 7 Nov. 2005 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5005970923.
Kurz, Demie. "Women, Welfare and Domestic Violence." Social Justice 25.1 (1998): 105+. Questia. 7 Nov. 2005 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001359170.
Salazar, Laura F., Charlene K. Baker, Ann W. Price, and Kathleen Carlin. "Moving beyond the Individual: Examining the Effects of Domestic Violence Policies on Social Norms." American Journal of Community Psychology 32.3-4 (2003): 253+. Questia. 7 Nov. 2005 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002444789.