Educational Trends: U.S. Women Research Paper

Length: 4 pages Sources: 1+ Subject: Sports - Women Type: Research Paper Paper: #81164337 Related Topics: Glass Ceiling, Gender Gap, Once Upon A Time, Sports Sociology
Excerpt from Research Paper :

Education Trends

SOS 492 WA 3 social sciences

What are the education trends of women in the United States?

One of the most surprising and significant recent trends in higher education in the United States is that women now make up a larger percentage of college students and graduates than men; once upon a time there were jokes that women merely went to college to obtain their 'MRS.' Today, that could not be farther from the truth. "Both men and women complete more schooling now than in the past, but beginning in the mid-1980s, women's college completion rates began to surpass men's in the United States" (Schwartz & Han 2014: 605). There is increasing evidence that women regard education as critical for personal advancement and economic stability. "Among whites in 2006, women obtain 57% of bachelor's degrees while among Blacks, women receiving bachelor's degrees made up 66% of college graduates. The Hispanic population was also in that range, as 61% of Hispanic college graduates were women" (Wilson 2013). However, although women are graduating at higher rates than their male colleagues, they still lag behind men with college degrees in terms of their earning power.

Due to the racial disparities in these statistics, a number of public figures, including President Obama, have specifically targeted young black men as in need of assistance with the process of navigating high school and college. But "the growing gender gap in college enrollment is not limited to Hispanic and black youth. In 1994, among high school graduates, 62% of young white men and 66% of young white women were enrolled in college immediately after graduation -- a four percentage point gender gap. In 2012, that gap had grown to 10 percentage points as the share of young white women enrolled in college grew to 72% while the rate for men remained the same" (Lopez & Barrea 2014). Although the gender gap is magnified within certain racial groups (and is less manifest amongst Asian-Americans) its persistence holds true across Caucasian, Black, and Latino demographics, all of which have very different educational histories within the computer science have become more prestigious, fewer rather than more women emerge with degrees in these areas. Today, "only 18% of computer science graduates in the United States are women, down from 37% in 1985" (Miller 2014). Some colleges have specifically targeted women as recruits in their computer science and engineering programs, including the University of Washington, Harvey Mudd, and Carnegie Mellon University where "40% of incoming freshmen to the School of Computer Science are women" (Miller 2014). The most successful programs at recruiting women made a commitment to changing the curriculum, often emphasizing creative problem-solving vs. pure coding (Miller 2014).

There is an inconsistent trend in women's economic advancement: on the whole more women are earning college degrees, suggesting a kind of a need for 'affirmative action' in reverse for males, yet in high-income fields which would truly allow women to break the glass ceiling, women have yet to attain parity except in programs which have made specific commitments to recruit women. The lack of preparation for lucrative jobs may be one of the reasons that women have yet to attain income equity with their male peers in most major industrialized countries, even when they possess the same level of education "women ages 30 -- 44 had earnings which ranged from about 49 to 76% of those of males" (Bae et al. 2000: 94).

During elementary school, girls are notably stronger than boys across all subject levels and are also less likely to exhibit symptoms of learning disabilities. "Evidence suggests that girls…

Sources Used in Documents:

References

Bae, Y (et al. 2000). Educational equity of girls and women. National Center for Education

Statistics. Retrieved from: http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2000/2000030.pdf

Bidwell, A. (2014). Women more likely to graduate college, but still earn less than men.

U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved from:
http://www.usnews.com/news/blogs/data-mine/2014/10/31/women-more-likely-to-graduate-college-but-still-earn-less-than-men
http://www.slate.com/articles/double_x/doublex/2014/06/women_in_science_a_new_study_on_how_male_professors_discriminate_against.html
Pew Research Center. Retrieved from: http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2014/03/06/womens-college-enrollment-gains-leave-men-behind/
The New York Times. Retrieved from: http://www.nytimes.com/2014/07/18/upshot/some-universities-crack-code-in-drawing-women-to-computer-science.html?abt=0002&abg=1&_r=0
Retrieved from: http://www.asanet.org/journals/ASR/Aug14ASRFeature.pdf
http://www.acsd.org/article/female-career-trends-and-the-implications-on-higher-education/


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