Evidence-Based Practice Model Essay

Excerpt from Essay :


Evidence-based practice model

EBP project issue: Obesity

"The prevalence of obesity (BMI > 30) has been increasing; currently; at least 27% of the adult population is obese" (McTigue 2003: vii). Despite being one of the most pervasive health problems in modernity, there is relatively little information on obesity available in the annals of evidence-based medicine. This may be due to the fact that obesity is such a complex and multifactorial disease, without a clear etiology. Perfectly-controlled studies can be difficult to construct. Many different factors can impact a person's ability to maintain a health BMI, spanning from genetics to culture to lifestyle to social and economic factors.

A 2003 evidence-based review of existing studies of obesity in adults found in MEDLINE from January 1, 1994 to July 31, 2001 only found four meeting the relevant criteria of studying persons suffering from obesity. There were no RCT (randomized controlled trials, or the 'gold standard' of effective evidence-based medicine), only cohort studies. All of these evidence-based research studies revealed only modest results for a variety of obesity treatment programs. It was found that "intensive counseling and behavioral treatment for obesity is effective in reducing mean weight by about 3 kg [approximately 6.6 lbs.] to 5 kg [approximately 11 lbs.] after 1 year. Pharmacotherapy with sibutramine or orlistat is also effective in reducing mean weight by about 3 to 5 kg. For people with BMI of 35 or greater, surgical therapy leads to dramatic reductions in weight of 20 kg or more" but contains many risks and is not indicated for all obese subjects (McTigue 2003: viii).

Overall, frequent screening, counseling, and consistent interventions were suggested as supported by all research studies. The greatest health benefits occurred in subjects able to lose more than modest amounts of weight. A similar 2004 evidence-based study of obesity added that the 'chronic' disease model rather than focusing on a specific weight loss goal is most productive although it similarly suggested frequent counseling and diet and exercise modifications as the cornerstones of obesity prevention (Orzano & Scott 2004). Viewing obesity as a chronic disease was seen as more helpful than only focusing on the ultimate restoration of a lower BMI. Patients remain prone to 'relapse' and adapt old eating habits. Additionally, obesity itself can generate many chronic illnesses such as hypertension, type II diabetes, heart disease, and joint problems which do not entirely resolve themselves after a restoration of a normal body weight.

One problem with the stress upon calorie reduction and exercise as the solution to obesity, however, is that although this may be mathematically correct, it has proven to be relatively difficult for many subjects to adopt. Few can enact meaningful, permanent life changes. Not to become obese at all seems, statistically speaking, a better guarantee of long-term weight reduction, which is why many anti-obesity researchers stress the need to reduce the burgeoning obesity rate amongst…

Sources Used in Document:


McTigue, K. (2003 et al.). Screening and interventions for overweight and obesity in adults.

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). Systematic Evidence Review, 21.

Retrieved: http://www.ahrq.gov/downloads/pub/prevent/pdfser/obesser.pdf

New research findings on evidenced-based approaches to tackle childhood obesity. (2012).

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